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Urinary system functions
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Urine formation with excretion of waste products / regulates blood volume , fluid electrolyte balance and acid base balance
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Urinary system functions
Urine formation with excretion of waste products / regulates blood volume , fluid electrolyte balance and acid base balance
location of kidney
located in upper abdominal cavity above waistline and behind peritoneum
Adipose capsule
a layer of fat surrounding the kidneys
Renal Fascia
Membrane covering each kidney. Normally the right kidney hangs lower than the left one, but if the kidneys drop down lower this is called renal ptosis
shape of kidney
Shaped about 4 inches long and 2 inches wide
an indentation on the medial side of each kidney where blood vessels enter and ureters emerge
Renal artery
Short branch of the abdominal aorta that carries blood into the kidney
Renal Vein
carries blood out of the kidney into the inferior vena cava
Renal cortex
outermost area of kidney
Renal Medulla
middle area of kidney containing the pyramids
triangular shaped divisions of the medulla, with 8-18 pyramids per kidney
inner tip of each pyramid
Renal Pelvis
Innermost cavity formed by the expansion of the ureter
funnel-shaped extensions of the renal pelvis. Urine flows through these into the renal pelvis
functional units of the kidneys with one million per kidney. This is where urine is formed from blood plasma. The two parts of the nephron are the renal corpuscle and renal tubule
Renal Corpuscle
consists of glomerulus and bowmans capsule
network of blood capillaries that have a very high BP
Afferent arteriole
vessel that brings blood into the glomerulus from the renal artery
Efferent arteriole
Vessel that carries blood away from the glomerulus and eventually back into the renal vein
bowmans capsule
cup shaped structure surrounding the glomerulus
renal tubule
long tube consisting of several parts
proximal convuluted tubule
first part of tube nearest to the bowmans capsule. It is convoluted or twisted
Loop of Henle
straight " U " shaped part of tube
distal convoluted tubule
twisted part of the tube farthest away from bowmans capsule. Several of these empty into one
collecting tubule
these empty urine into a calyce of the renal pelvis
peritubular capillaries
blood vessels that surround all parts of the renal tubule. Substances can pass between the renal tubule and blood in the peritubular capillaries
Glomelular Filtration
high BP in the glomerulus forces plasma, dissolved substances and small protiens from the blood into the bowmans capsule where BP is low. This fluid is called filtrate
Glomelular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Is the amount of renal filtrate formed by the kidneys in one minute. Normal GFR is approximately 125ml/min. This makes about 180L of renal filtrate each day. A high BP increases GFR, while a low BP decreases it.
Tubular reabsorption
Takes place in renal tubules. A normal daily urine output is 1-2 L of urine, so this means that most of the renal filtrate gets reabsorbed back into the blood from the renal tubules into the surrounding peritubular capillaries.
active transport
using ATP to move substances across cell membranes. This is how glucose, amino acids, positive ions, minerals, and vitamins are reabsorbed from the tubule back into the blood.
threshold level
a limit to the quantity of substances that can be reabsorbed back into the blood. This is regulated by blood levels.
Passive transport
how negative ions are reabsorbed
reabsorption of water that is affected by 3 hormones (ADH) / Aldosterone / Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
small proteins are too large to be reabsorbed, so they are engulfed by the proximal tubule cells using no protein to enter urine.
Tubular secretion
also occurs in the renal tubules where substances are secreted from the blood in the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate and become part of urine.
renin secretion
the kidneys will secrete the enzyme renin when BP decreases. Renin then initiates the Renin angiotensin mechanism to raise BP
Erythropoieten Secretion
The kidneys secrete this hormone when blood o2 decreases or during hypoxia. It increases RBC production
Activation of vitamin D
the kidneys convert inactive vitamin D to its active form
Maintaining Acid base balance
the kidneys can compensate for changes in Blood PH.
metabolic acidosis
low PH and low HCO3 that can occur with kidney disease, DKA, excessive urination or diarrhea
metabolic alkalosis
high ph and high hco3 that can occur with overuse of antacids or prolonged gastric suctioning
location of ureter
2 tubes that lead out from the renal pelvis of each kidney. They connect the kidneys to the urinary bladder
structure of ureter
each is about a foot long and 4" wide. They are lined with mucous membrane and have a thick muscular wall
function of ureter
urine moves down the ureters by peristalsis. As the bladder fills, it compresses the lower ends of the ureters to prevent urine reflux
Location of urinary bladder
a muscular sac behind the pubic bones. In women it sits below the uterus and in men its above the prostate
the bladder lies in these folds when its empty, just like the stomach.
Detrusor muscle
the smooth muscle layer wall of the bladder
internal urethral sphincter
muscle fiber at opening to urethra that opens involuntarily
function of urinary bladder
collects and temporarily stores urine (800ml)
location of urethra
tube between bladder and outside
structure of urethra
1-2 inches long in females and 7-8 inches long in males as it passes through the penis
external urethral sphincter
muscle within wall of urethra that is under voluntary control
urinary meatus
distal opening to the urethra
function of urethra
its only function in the female is to carry urine. In the male it carries both urine and semen.
Normal urine gravity
1,010-1,025. The lower the number the more dilute....and the higher the number the more concentrated
PH of urine
4.6 - 8.0 with an average of 6.0 . Most affected by diet.
composition of h20
95% H20
glucose (glycosuria)
may be present with diabetes mellitus, corticosteriod use, h igh sugar intake, or emotional stress
ketones (ketonuria)
end products of fat metabolism, most common with DKA or when on extremely low CHO diet
protein (proteinuria)
may be present during pregnancy or with impaired kidney function
blood (hematuria)
presence of RBCs may be contamination from menses, or be found with a severe UTI. May appear pink, reddish brown, or bright red
pus (pyuria)
due to bacterial infection producing cloudy urine
bacteria (bacteriuria)
urine is normally sterile, free of any organisms. Bacteria and WBCs may be present with a UTI
protein precipitates in urine. Large amounts indicate nephron disease
synovial fluid
water in joints
aqueous humor
water in the anterior eye chamber
blood plasma
water inside blood vessels
water inside lymph vessels
serous fluid
water between serous membranes

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