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Social Environment (Nurture)
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The entire human environment, including interaction with others
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terms list

Social Environment (Nurture)
The entire human environment, including interaction with others
Feral Children
Children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from humans
Isolated children
Denied early interaction with other humans that contribute to development of basic intelligence and unable to establish close bonds.
Victor (The Wild Child)
1800 in Aveyron (Age 11) -wild and put in cages -Jean-Marc itard -Could not speak -Lived to age of 40
High Intelligence (Skeels 1966)
Depends on early, close relations with other humans.
The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group- the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them.
The unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves "from the outside"; the views we internalize of how we think others see us.
Looking-glass self
A term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us.
Charles Horton Cooley (1864- 1929)
A symbolic interactionist who taught at the University of Michigan, concluding that producing a self is an essential part of how society makes us human. He said our sense of self develops from interaction with others. "Each to each a looking glass Reflects the other doth pass."
Looking-glass self
A term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us.
Elements of Looking-Glass Self
1. We imagine how we appear to those around us. 2. We interpret others' reactions. 3. We develop a self-concept.
Direct Socialization
Learning through reward and punishment
Indirect Socialization
Learning through modeling and imitation
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)
Taught at the University of Chicago, pointed out how important play is in developing a self. As we play with others, we learn to take the role of the other.
Meads' 3 Stages of Self Development
1. Preparatory Stage 2. Play Stage 3. Game Stage
Taking the role of the other
Putting yourself in someone else's shoes; understanding how someone feels and thinks, so you anticipate how that person will act
Significant Other
An individual who significantly influences someone else.
Three stages of taking the role of the other
1. Imitation 2. Play 3. Team Games
Mead believed the self is composed of what two parts:
The "I" - Portion of the self wishes to have free expression, to be active, and spontaneous. The "Me" - Refers to the part of us that is learned from education and from family, peers, school and so on
Generalized other
The norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people "in general"; the child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of self.
Jean Piaget (1896- 1980)
Concluded that children undergo a special process as they develop their ability to reason. This process has four stages.
Natural Process of developing reason (John Piaget)
1. The sensorimotor stage. During this stage, our understanding is limited to direct contact-sucking, touching, listening, looking. We aren't able to think. 2. The preoperational stage During this stage, we develop the ability to use symbols. However, we do not yet understand common concepts such as size, speed, or causation. 3. The concrete operational stage Although our reasoning abilities are more developed, they remain concrete. We can explain why something's a lie but we cannot describe what truth is. 4. The formal operational stage We are now capable of abstract thinking. We can talk about concepts, come to conclusions based on general principles, and use rules to solve abstract problems.
Sigmund Freud (1856- 1939)
Developed a theory of the origin of personality that had a major impact on Western thought. Founded psychoanalysis.
A technique for treating emotional problems through a long-term exploration of the subconscious mind.
Three elements of personality (According to Freud)
1. ID - basic survival instincts/ Freedom 2. Ego - Resolves internal conflict/ Finds socially acceptable ways for ID's drives to be expressed. 3. The Superego - Respects the rules of society / Respects Social Norms/ Consience Freud believes this comes from biology
Freud's term for our inborn basic drives
Freud's term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of society.
Freud's term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups.
Lawrence Kohlberg
Concluded that we go through a sequence of stages as we develop morality. "Every Society has a moral order: A shared view of right and wrong." "Not every person is capable of thinking about morality in the same way; morality develops in stages,"
Moral Development (According to Kohlberg)
Orientation toward punishment Orientation toward reward Orientation toward possible disapproval by others Orientation toward foral laws and fear of personal dishonor Orientation toward peer value and Democracy Orientation toward one's own set of values.
Six Basic Emotions According to Paul Ekman
1. Anger 2. Disgust 3. Fear 4. Happiness 5. Sadness 6. Suprise
The behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or femininity
Gender Socialization/ Gender Map
Learning society's "gender map," the path in life set out for us because we are male or female.
Peer groups
A group of individuals often of roughly the same age, who are linked by common interests and orientations.
Mass Media
Forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers, and television that are directed to mass audiences.
Social Inequality
A social condition in which privileges and obligations are given to some but denied to others.
Agents of socialization
people of groups that affect our self concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life.
Manifest Functions
The intended beneficial consequences of people's actions
Latent Functions
Unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions
Corridor Curriculum
What students teach one another outside the classroom
Anticipatory Socialization
The process of learning in advance an anticipated future role or status
The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.
Total institiution
A place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut off from them
Degradation Ceremony
A term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to remake someone's self by stripping away that individual's self identity and stamping a new identity in its place.
Life course
The stages of our life as we go from birth to death
Transitional Adulthood
A term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood; also called adultolescence.
Transitional Older Years
An emerging stage of the life course between retirement and when people are considered old; about age 65 to 74.
Amoral Stage
No right or wrong
Preconventional Stage
Learned rules and follow them to stay out of trouble.
Postconventional Stage
People are able to reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong and judge people's behavior according to these .
- Isolated baby rhesus monkeys then reunited with other monkeys - Found that affection is more important that feeding and care.
Effective Resocialization
1. Isolation from the outside world. 2. Spending all of one's time in the same place with the same people. 3. Shedding individual identity by giving up old clothes and possessions for standard uniforms. 4. A clean break with the past. 5. Loss of freedom of action.

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