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muscular tissue
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enables the body and its parts to move, consist of elongated cells that can use ATP to generate force produce body movement, caused by muscle cells called fibers shortening or contracting
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terms list

muscular tissue
enables the body and its parts to move, consist of elongated cells that can use ATP to generate force produce body movement, caused by muscle cells called fibers shortening or contracting
Types of muscle tissue
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
cardiac muscle
A type of muscle that forms the contractile wall of the heart. Its cells are joined by intercalated discs that relay each heartbeat.
intercalculated disks
electrical connectors that joint the muscle fibers
skeletal muscle
Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons
nonstriated muscle
smooth muscle, lacks cross stripes or striations, found in walls of hollow visceral structures such as digestive tract, blood vessels, and ureters
stimulate muscle tissue to contract
what causes peristalsis
contraction of smooth muscle
Composition skeletal muscle
mainly striated muscle fibers and connective tissue, tendons
Parts of skeletal muscle
Origin, Insertion, and body
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
Distal. The more movable of the attachment sites of the muscle
Body of muscle
main part of the muscle
a strong connective tissue that connects muscle to bone some are enclosed in synovial fluid
tendon sheaths
encloses some tendons, lined with synovial membrane, helps movement
small, fluid-filled (synovial fluid) pocket in connective tissue lined by a synovial membrane; form where tendons rub against other tissues
contractile cells
microscoopic cells called fibers grouped into bundles
thick myofilaments containing protein myosin and thin myofilaments composed of actin
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
Functions of skeletal Muscle
movement, posture, heat production, & protection
Prime Mover
A muscle that is the primary actor in a given movement, that is, the muscle that produces the movement in muscle contraction.
assist in action of antagonists; not necessarily prime movers for the action; known as guiding muscles; assist in refined movement and rule out undesired motions
a muscle that relaxes while another contracts, reflexes
tonic contraction
a specialized type of muscle contraction enables us to maintain body position (posture)
Heat production
Muscles contract and cause blood flow to the area increases heat
oxygen debt
a cumulative deficit of oxygen resulting from intense exercise, must replace oxygen, homeostasis
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
role of other body systems in movement
respiratory, circulatory, nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems play essential roles in producing normal movements, most muscles cause movements by pulling on bones across movable joints
motor neuron
specialized nerve that transmits an impulse to a muscle, causing contraction
motor unit
combination of a motor neuron with the muscle fiber or fibers it innervates. ACH acetylchlooine is released from motor neuron
threshold stimulus
the minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract
"all" or "none"
once stimulated by a threshold stimulus, a muscle fiber will contract completely, a response called all or none
twitch contractions
laboratory phenomena and do not play a significant role in normal muscular activity
tetanic contractions
sustained and steady muscular contractions caused by a series of stimuli bombarding a muscle in rapid succession
isotonic contractions
produce movement at a joint, muscle tension the same, length changes, walking or running
isometric contractions
length of the muscle does not change but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process, pushing a wall, pull-ups
any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use)
increase in the size of a tissue or organ without tumor formation; usually implies an increase in cell size without an increase in cell number
act of bending a joint prime mover
a muscle that relaxes while another contracts "when bending the elbow the triceps are the antagonist"
pointing body part up (foot/ankle)
plantar flexion
Extension of the toes or foot so that they point downward
turning the sole of the foot inward
turning the sole of the foot outward

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