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pulmonary ventilation
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a process in external respiration involving the physical movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract, providing alveolar ventilation
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terms list

pulmonary ventilation
a process in external respiration involving the physical movement of air into and out of the respiratory tract, providing alveolar ventilation
gas diffusion
a process in external respiration which happens across the respiratory membrane between alveolar air space and alveolar capillaries, and across capillary walls between blood and other tissues
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
a process in external respiration which takes place between alveolar capillaries and capillary beds in other tissues
alveolar ventilation
movement of air into and out of alveoli
an indicator of how easily the lungs expand and contract; affected by connective tissue structure of lungs, level of surfactant production, mobility of thoracic cage
normal atmospheric pressure at sea level
intrapulmonary pressure
a type of pressure relative to atmospheric pressure; in relaxed, quiet breathing the difference is about -1mmHg on inhalation and +1mmHg on expiration
quiet breathing involving active inhalation and passive exhalation
diaphragmatic breathing
a type of eupnea involving deep breathing dominated by the diaphragm
costal breathing
a type of eupnea involving shallow breathing dominated by ribcage movements
forced breathing involving active inhalation and exhalation, assisted by accessory muscles
alveolar ventilation rate
determined by respiratory rate and tidal volume together; average 4.2 liters per minute at rest, contains less O2 and more CO2 than atmospheric air as it is mixed with exhaled air; increases with increasing tidal volume at a given respiratory rate and vice versa
vital capacity
expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
total lung capacity
vital capacity + residual volume
the gas law
the physical principles that the rate of diffusion depends on (including Boyle's law); diffusion occurs in response to concentration gradients
partial pressures, diffusion between a gas and liquid
two factors of gas exchange
partial pressure
a factor of gas exchange in alveolar air and alveolar capillaries where blood arriving in pulmonary arteries has a low PO2 and a high PCO2 compared to air; O2 enters blood and CO2 leaves it by the concentration gradient; exchange is rapid & allows blood to reach equilibrium with alveolar air
oxyhemoglobin saturation curve
a graph that relates the saturation of hemoglobin to the partial pressure of oxygen; the higher the PO2 the greater the hemoglobin saturation; the relationship is a curve as the hemoglobin molecule changes shape each time a molecule of O2 is bound, making each succesive O2 molecule easier to bound; allows hemoglobin to bind O2 even when alveolar oxygen levels are low
biphosphoglycerate (BPG)
formed along with lactic acid during glycolysis in RBCs; has a direct effect on O2 binding and release (the more BPG the more O2 released); BPG levels rise when pH increases or when stimulated by certain hormones; if BPG levels are low hemoglobin won't release O2
carbon dioxide
produced as a byproduct of aerobic metabolism (cellular respiration) in peripheral tissues; after entering the bloodstream CO2 is either converted to carbonic acid, bound to the protein portion of hemoglobin, or dissolved in plasma
chloride shift
an exchange mechanism that takes in Cl- ions without using ATP, and moves bicarbonate ions into plasma
respiratory reflexes
changes in patterns of respiration induced by sensory information from certain sensations e.g. pain, changes in body temperature, and abnormal visceral sensations
affect respiratory reflexes as they are sensitive to PCO2, PO2, and pH of blood cerebrospinal fluid
affect respiratory reflexes; in the aortic or carotic sinuses and sensitive to changes in blood pressure
stretch receptors
affect respiratory reflexes by responding to changes in volume of lungs
irritating physical/chemical stimuli
affect respiratory reflexes; in nasal cavity, larynx, or bronchial tree
chemoreceptor reflexes
strongly influence respiratory centers by chemoreceptor input from the cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve), cranial nerve X (vagus nerve), receptors that monitor cerebrospinal fluid; stimulation leads to increased depth and rate of respiration
baroreceptor reflexes
affect blood pressure and the respiratory centers through carotid and aortic baroreceptor stimulation; when blood pressure falls, respiration increases and vice versa

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