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in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing
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terms list

free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic techniquw that attributes thoughts and actions to the unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed that the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
id, ego, superego
Freud's three interacting systems in the proposition of personality development
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
the largely conscious, executive part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. It operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provies standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Freud's five stages of childhood development
erogenous zones
distinct, pleasure-sensitive areas of the body
phallic stage
Freud's stage of childhood development during which boys seek genital stimulation, and develop both unconscious sexual desires for the mother and jealousy and hatred for their father who they consider their rival
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Electra complex
a parallel to the Oedipus complex for girls
oral stage
Freud's stage of childhood development during which pleasure centers on the mouth
Freud's stage of childhood development during which plasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
Freud's stage of childhood development during which pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Freud's stage of childhood development during which sexual feelings are dormant
Freud's stage of childhood development during which sexual interests mature
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parent's values into their developing superegos (if you can't beat 'em, join 'em)
gender identity
a sense of being male or female
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved
Freud said this was the price we pay for civilization
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression, regression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization and displacement
six defense mechanisms by Freud's definition
according to Freud, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness
according to Freud, this defense mechanism underlies all others
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously witches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others ("the thief thinks everyone else is a thief)
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traced from our species' history
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or the TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
the Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of ten inkblots, designed by Hermann rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
reliability (consistency of results), and validity (predicting what it's supposed to)
the two primary criteria of a good test
terror-management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
the false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the degree to which other people share our beliefs and behaviors
this psychologist proposed that we ware motivated by a hierarchy of needs
the motivation to fulfill one's potential
physiological needs, personal safety, sense of security, love, self-esteem, self-actualization
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
Myers-Briggs type indicator
a multiple-choice personality test that organizes the takers into "thinking" types or "feeling" types
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that has been used to identify clusters of related items
extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability
Eysenck and Eysenck believed we could reduce many of our normal individual variations to these two dimensions
personality inventory
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now also used for many other screening purposes
empirically derived test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion
the big five personality factors
the big five traits are generally [stable/waning]
conscientiousness increases the most in this decade of people's lives
agreeableness increases the most during this decade in people's lives
fifty percent
heritability of the big five personality factors
[true/false] the big five personality factors are common to all human groups
person-situation controversy
the debate over whether an individual's sustaining characteristics or circumstances are more important in determining one's personality
social-cognitive perspective
this perspective views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. It is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
resting potential
the state of a neural cell with a positively charged outside and a negatively charged inside
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
false (the neuron's reaction is an all-or-none response)
[true/false] increasing the stimulus above the threshold will increas the action potential's intensity
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
synaptic gap
the tiny gap at the junction of one axon and one dendrite
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, they travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
the reabsorption of excess neurotransmitters
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
[true/false] ACh is the messenger at ever junction between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle
acetylcholine controls muscle movement by causing them to do this
this neurotransmitter influences movement, learning, attention and emotion. An excess of it is linked to schizophrenia, and a deficit can produce the tremors and decreased mobility associated with Parkinson's disease
this neurotransmitter affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal. An undersupply is linked to depression; many antidepressants raise its levels in the brain
this neurotransmitter helps control alertness and arousal. An undersupply can depress mood.
GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
this neurotransmitter is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters. An undersupply is linked to seizures, tremors and insomnia
this is a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory. An oversupply can overstimulate the brain, producing migraines and seizures
natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
botulin works by inhibiting the release of this neurotransmitter from the sending neuron
the blood-brain barrier
this enables the brain to fence out unwanted chemicals circulating in the blood.
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
this is made up of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
neural cables containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands and sense organs
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the sutonomic nercous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
increase, decrease
antidepressants [increase/decrease] the rate of suicide in the short run, and [increase/decrease] the rate of suicide in users in the long run
this salt can be an effective mood stabilizer for those suffering from bipolar disorder
this drug can effectively help those with bipolar disorder (not lithium)
electroconvulsive therapy
biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electrical current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
eclectic approach
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
psychotherapy integration
the combination of different methods of psychological therapies into a single, coherent system (similar to the eclectic approach)
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
latent content
the underlying but censored meaning of a dream
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships, such as love or hatred for a parent
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate client's growth
active listening
empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
paraphrase, invite clarification, reflect feelings
three steps to active listening
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted beahviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure and aversive conditioning
exposure therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
systematic desensitization
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders or public speaking
aversive conditioning (opposite of systematic desensitization)
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking)
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the token for various privileges or treats
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
stress inoculation training
teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations
cognitive behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
our awareness of ourselves and our environments
biological rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms(for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
suprachiasmatic nucleus
a pair of pinhead-sized clusters of 20,000 cells that control the circadian clock
a sleep-inducing hormone
pineal gland
part of the brain that controls the release of melatonin
a chemical that inhibits certain neurons, making us sleepy
caffeine blocks the activity of this chemical
REM sleep
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness--as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from coma, general anesthesia or hibernation
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
hypnagogic sensations
life-like hallucinations that occur shortly after falling asleep
stage 1
this stage of sleep usually only lasts a short time and is characterized by hypnagogic sensations
stage 1
sleep talking can occur during any sleep stage except for this
stage 2
this sleep stage is characterized by the appearance of sleep spindles
sleep spindles
burst of rapid, rhythmic brain activity
three and four
your brain emits delta waves during these two stages of sleep (also known as the slow-wave sleep stages)
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
stage 4
it is at the end of this sleep stage that children typically wet the bed or begin sleep walking
stage 3, then stage 2
after about an hour of sleep, one re-enters these stages of the sleep cycle
after reentering stage 2 of sleep, the body moves into this sleep stage
ten minutes
REM sleep usually lasts about this long
shorter, longer
as the night progresses, stage 4 sleep sessions get [shorter/longer] and REM sleep sessions get [shorter/longer]
protection, restoration and repair, remembering, growth
sleep may have evolved for these four reasons
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
narcoleptics typically are deficient in this neurotransmitter
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; they occur during Stage 4 of sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind; they are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulty remembering it
lucid dreams
dreams during which we being to wonder whether we are, in fact, dreaming. During one of these, we may even attempt to test our states of consciousness
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent or hidden content)
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream. Freud believed that it functioned as a safety valve
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
hypnotic ability
the ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it, to entertain fanciful possibilites
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
the adaptation of the brain's chemistry to offset external effects
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
compulsive drug craving and use
drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates and opiates that reduce neural activity and slow bodily functions
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement; tranquilizers
drugs that depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety; includes morphine, opium and heroine
drugs such as caffeine, nicotine and more powerful amphetamines like cocaine and ecstasy that excite neural activity and speed up bodily functions
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speedup of body functions and associated energy and mood changes
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up bodily functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
psychedelic "mind manifesting" drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
the major active ingredient in pot; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
attributional style
a person's characteristic tendency to categorize events as either positive or negative
themselves (or their own lack of ability)
those with negative attributional styles tend to blame negative situations on ____
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
defensive self-esteem
this type of self-esteem is fragile; it focuses on sustaining itself, which makes failures and criticism feel threatening. It correlates with agreesive and/or antisocial behavior
secure self-esteem
a less fragile self-esteem that is contingent upon external evaluations
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful and dysfunctional behavior patterns
psychological disorders
mental health workers view these as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings and actions
medical model
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, this assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system fr classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated text revision
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
the patient cannot identify a cause
one of the worst characteristics of a generalized anxiety disorder
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations
fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable, should a panic attack strike
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and or actions
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
anterior cingulate cortex
this part of the brain is hyperactive in OCD patients
dissociative disorder
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts and feelings
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also known as multiple personality disorder
distinct brain and body states
those who accept DID as a genuine disorder ind support in these, associated with differeing personlities
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
dysthymic disorder
a down-in-the-dumps mood that fills most of the day, nearly every day, for two years or more
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
[true/false] depression is wide-spread
[true/false] women are nearly twice as vulnerable to major depression as men
false (most major depressive episodes self-terminate)
[true/false] to come out of depression, most individuals require therapy
[true/false] depression has a genetic component
this neurotransmitter is scarce during depression
omega-3 fatty acids
people with depression have recently been observed to have low levels of these in their blood (not serotonin)
self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles
these two feed depression's vicious cycle
stable (it's going to last forever), global (it's going to affect everything I do), and internal (it's all my fault)
depressed people tend to explain bad events in terms that are these three
1) negative events interpreted through 2) a pessimistic explanatory style create 3) a hopeless, depressed state that 4) inhibits the way the person thinks and acts. This fuels 1) negative experiences such as rejection
the steps in the depression cycle
a groups of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
those with these tendencies are particularly prone to delusions of persecution
selective attention
those with schizophrenia have an inhibited ability to use this
auditory, voices insulting or giving orders
schizophrenic hallucinations are typically [visual/auditory] and take this form
flat affect
a zombie-like state of apparent apathy common in schizophrenics
a symptom of schizophrenia in which the patient remains motionless for hours on end
paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, undifferentiated
five types of schizophrenia
chronic (process) schizophrenia
slow-developing schizophrenia
acute (reactive) schizophrenia
schizophrenia that develops rapidly in response to particular life stresses
[acute/chronic] schizophrenia reacts better to drug therapy
negative, chronic
men are more likely to exhibit [positive/negative] symptoms and [acute/chronic] schizophrenia
schizophrenics have a six-fold excess of the receptor for this neurotransmitter
excess dopamine receptors in schizophrenics seem to create more [positive/negative] symptoms
frontal lobes
people with schizophrenia tend to have decreased synchronized neural firing in this part of the brain
during schizophrenic hallucinations, this part of the brain lights up
paranoid schizophrenics have hyperactivity in this part of the brain
cortex, thalamus
these regions of the brain is much smaller than usual in people with schizophrenia
ascending neural fibers send up ____ information
motor control
descending neural fibers send down ____-____ information
the simple, sutomatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as a knee-jerk response
neural network
interconnected neural cells. With experience, they can learn as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results
endocrine system
the body's slow chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
some hormones are chemically identical to neurotransmitters
the endocrine system and nervous system are kindred systems because
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. they secrete hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which help to arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, this regulated growth and controls endocrine glands
master of the pituitary gland
biomedical therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors

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