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The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
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The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Anything we do, from sleeping to rock climbing.
Mental Processes
Our private, internal experiences-thoughts,perceptions, feelings, memories, and dreams.
Empirical Evidence
Information acquired by direct observation and measurement using systematic scientific methods.
Anything that falsely appears to be science. Ex: Psychics, Astrology, Palmistry
Nature-Nurture Controversy
Ongoing dispute over the relative contributers of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) to the development of behavior and mental processes.
Psychoanalytic School
Founded by Sigmund Freud, believed that many pschycological probles are caused by conflicts between "acceptable" behavior and "unacceptable" unconscious sexual or aggressive motives.
Behaviorist Perspective
Founded by John B Watson, emphasizes objective ,observable environmental influences on overt behavior.
Humanist Perspective
stresses free will (voluntarily chosen behavior) and self-actualization (a state of self-fulfillment).
Cognitive Perspective
emphasizes thoughts, perception, and information processing.
Neuroscientific/Biopsychological Perspective
examine behavior through the lens of genetics and biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system.
Evolutionary Perspective
Stresses natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes.
Sociocultural Perspective
Emphasizes social interactions and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes.
Biopsychosocial Model
A unifying theme of modern psychology that considers biological, psychological, and social processes.
Basic Research
Typically conducted in universities or research laboratories by researchers who are interested in advancing general scientific understanding.
Applied Research
Generally conducted outside the laboratory, and it meets the fourth goal of psychology-to change existing real-world problems.
Scientific Method
Cyclic and cumulative, and scientific progress comes from repeatedly challenging and revising existing theories and building new ones.
A carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter have a casual effect on other variables.
Experimental Group
Group with treatment being tested.
Control Group
Group in an experiment that receives no experimental treatment
Double-Blind Study
Where neither the observer nor the participant knows which group received the experimental treatment.
Assumption by the experimenter that a behavior that is typical in their culture is typical in all cultures.
Naturalistic Observation
Researchers systematically measure and record participants' behavior, without interfering. (behavior unfolds naturally in different environments,settings, and situations)
Used to measure a variety of pshycological behaviors and attitudes. Pros are researchers gather large amount of data from many people than by other research methods. Cons are surveys are self-reported so participants aren't always honest.
Case Studies
In-depth studies on single participants with a rare disorders or phenomena that are studied intensively.
Correlational Research
Scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them.
A small part of something intended as representative of the whole.
Over Learning
Involves continuing to work on materials even after it is learned.
The contemplation of your own thoughts and desires and conduct.

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