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active euthanasia
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deliberate ending of someone's life, based on their wishes, or the wishes of someone with legal authority to do so. Examples are administering a drug overdose, disconnecting life support, or a mercy killing.
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terms list

active euthanasia
deliberate ending of someone's life, based on their wishes, or the wishes of someone with legal authority to do so. Examples are administering a drug overdose, disconnecting life support, or a mercy killing.
anniversary reaction
dates that have personal significance that introduce feelings of grief
state or condition caused by loss through death
study of the interface between human values and technological advances. Requires people to weigh how much the patient will benefit from a treatment relative to the amount of suffering he will endure as a result of the treatment.
clinical death
death defined by a lack of heartbeat and respiration
end-of-life issues
includes management of the final phase of life (final scenario), disposition of body and memorial services, and distribution of assets
practice of ending a life for reasons of mercy
final scenario
making choices known to others about how a person wants his or her life to end. One of the most crucial parts is providing opportunities to affirm love, resolve conflicts, and provide peace to dying people. Failure to do so leaves survivors feeling they didn't achieve closure, which can result in bitterness towards the deceased.
sorrow, hurt, anger, guilt, confusion, and other feelings that arise after suffering a loss
grief work
psychological side of coming to terms with bereavement
grief work as rumination hypothesis
rejects the necessity of grief processing for recovery from loss and views extensive grief processing as a form of rumination that may actually increase distress
emphasizes pain management and death with dignity, to make person as comfortable as possible. Treatment available when no other treatment/cure is possible.
culturally approved ways in which people express their grief (wearing black, attending funerals)
passive euthanasia
allowing a person to die by withholding an available treatment
persistent vegetative state
state in which a person's cortical functioning ceases while brainstem activity continues. Allows for spontaneous heartbeat and respiration, but not for consciousness.
terror management theory
explaining why people engage in certain behaviors as attempting to ensure that one's life continues. Death is an outcome that would violate the prime motive.
whole-brain death
the most widely used measure to determine death, based on an established set of criteria
death as an image
flag at half staff
death as a statistic
mortality rates
death as an event
funeral, wake
death as a state of being
time of waiting
death as an analogy
dead as a doornail
death as a mystery
what happens after death?
death as a boundary
you can't come back, how many years do I have left?
death as a thief of meaning
I feel so cheated
death as fear and anxiety
I'm afraid to die
death as a reward or punishment
live long and prosper, the wicked go to hell
Death With Dignity Act
in 1994, Oregon passed the law making it legal for people to request a lethal dose of medication if they have a terminal disease and make the request voluntarily.
living will
when a person states his wishes about life support and other treatments
power of attorney
when an individual appoints someone to act as his agent
physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands
first country to have an official policy legalizing physician-assisted suicide, as long as certain criteria is met
young adults' feelings about death
if they died they'd feel cheated out of their future
middle-aged adults' feelings about death
time when they confront the death of their parents, realize they're next in line, emphasis changes from how long they've lived to how long they have left
older adults' feelings about death
less anxious, more accepting, result of achieving ego integrity, joy of living is diminishing, life tasks have been completed
Kubler-Ross's 5 stages of dying
reactions that represent how people deal with death. Can overlap and be experienced in different order.
when people are told they have a terminal illness, first reaction is shock and disbelief, most feel a mistake has been made
hostility, resentment, and envy towards healthcare workers, family, and friends. People ask "why me?"
people look for a way out, maybe a deal can be struck with someone, perhaps God
feelings of deep loss, sorrow, guilt, and shame over their illness and consequences
accepts inevitability and seems detached from the world and at peace
Corr's dimensions of approaching death
bodily needs, psychological security, interpersonal attachments, and spiritual energy/hope
Kastenbaum/Thuell's theory of dying
more holistic approach, accomplished by examining people's experiences as a narrative written from many points of view (patient, family, caregivers)
early death anxiety components
early research: pain, body malfunction, humiliation, rejection, nonbeing, punishment, interruption of goals, and negative impact on survivors. Assessed at three levels: public, private, and non-conscious..
death anxiety over the life span
older adults have less, due to their engaging in life review and religious motivation. Low ego integrity, more physical/psychological problems, are predictors of higher levels of death anxiety in older adults.
death anxiety differences in gender
men fear the unknown, women fear the dying process more
dealing with death anxiety
live life to the fullest, which causes few regrets. Male teenagers often engage in risky behavior that is correlated with low death anxiety. Death education programs aim at reducing anxiety by increasing our awareness of complex emotions felt and expressed by dying people and their families.
death education programs
aimed at reducing anxiety by increasing awareness of emotions of dying person and family
client differences between inpatient hospice and hospital
hospice clients are more mobile, less anxious, and less depressed, spouses visit more often, and hospice staff members are more accessible.
hospice not for everyone
those that need treatment or equipment not available in a hospice, those that find hospice doesn't fit their needs or personal beliefs.
6 considerations when exploring hospice option
patient informed about prognosis, other treatment options, person's fears/hopes, open discussion, family member participation in care, hospice program investigation
two barriers to hospice option
family reluctance to face reality of illness, and physician reluctance to approve hospice care until very late
4 activities of grief process
acknowledge the reality of the loss, work through the emotional turmoil, adjust to the environment where the deceased is absent, loosen ties to the deceased
3 misconceptions people have regarding grief
grief is highly individualized, must not underestimate time needed (usually 1 or 2 years), we must learn to live with loss, and not 'recover' from it
risk factors that make bereavement more difficult
mode of death, personal factors (personality, religiosity, age, gender), and interpersonal context (social support, kinship relationship)
normal grief reactions
sadness, denial, anger, loneliness, and guilt
Muller's five themes of grief
coping (what people do to help themselves), affect (emotional reactions to the death of their loved one), change (personal growth in survivor's lives), narrative (stories survivors tell about the deceased), relationship (reflects ties between deceased and survivor)
grief over time
depth of emotions over loss never go away, family stress increased to time of death, then decreased
effect of religiosity on grief
thought to provide support, but the evidence is mixed. Some who no effect, others show Latinos who practice religion openly show lower levels of grief than do those not openly religious.
four component theory of coping with grief
grief based on four things: 1) context of the loss 2) continuation of subjective meaning associated with loss 3) changing representations of the lost relationship over time 4) the role of coping and emotion-regulation processes
dual process model of coping with bereavement
defines two types of stressors: loss-oriented (grief from loss), and restoration-oriented (adapting to new life situation). Dealing with these stressors is a dynamic process.
traumatic grief reactions
involves symptoms of separation distress (preoccupation with deceased so much it interferes with everyday functioning, upsetting memories of the deceased, longing and searching for the deceased, loneliness following loss), and symptoms of traumatic distress (disbelief, mistrust, anger, physical symptoms, detachment from others). Two common manifestations are excessive guilt and self-blame.
young children vs older children views of death
young children don't realize death is permanent, it happens to everyone, and dead people no longer have biological functions until ages 5-7. Young children may feel responsible, denial, wishful thinking the deceased will return, while older children will have problems at school, anger issues, and physical ailments.
how should death be explained to children
keep explanations simple, reassuring them whatever reaction they have is okay, and provide loving support
effects of bereavement on adolescents
can be severe, causing depression, chronic illness, guilt, low self-esteem, relationship problems
adolescents reaction to loss of sibling
younger adolescents reluctant to discuss their grief, which leads to psychosomatic symptoms (headaches, stomach pains). Older adolescents are more willing to talk, but peers are less likely to listen. Grief does not interfere with normative developmental processes.
adolescents reaction to loss of parent
few non-bereaved peers willing to talk with them or even be around them
adolescents reaction to loss of friend
survivor guilt, resulting in ending of relationships with other friends
young adults reaction to death
tend to be more intense in their feelings toward death
young adults reaction to loss of partner
traumatic because not only loss, but an unexpected loss, and must deal with their own plus the grief of their children. Grief doesn't diminish until 5-10 years after their death.
mid-life adults reaction to loss of parent
leads to redefining meaning of their relationship with siblings and children. Deprived child of love, guidance, and cuts off opportunity to improve relationship with parent.
mid-life adults reaction to loss of child
worst type, some never recover due to strong parent-child bond. Attachment to child began before birth, so loss is deep.
older adults reaction to loss of partner
pressure to mourn and then move on, about 1 year mourning is appropriate.
effects of death of a child
never stop feeling loss, guilt that pain affected the parents' relationships with surviving children, view that closest relationship was with deceased child.
effects of death of grandchild
tend to hide pain to shield their child from the lever of pain being felt
sanctifying husbands
validating widow had a strong marriage, is a good person, and is capable of rebuilding her life

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