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simplest representation in geometry

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## terms list

point

simplest representation in geometry

line

made up of a series of points; always straight

ray

has 1 endpoint which must be named first

segment

has 2 endpoints

collinear

3 or more points on the same line

noncollinear

3 or more points not on the same line

plane

a flat surface that contains non collinear points; has no end

parallel lines

lines or planes that do not intersect and are always equidistance apart

midpoint

divides a segment into 2 equal parts or segments

congruent

having the same measure; not official until measured

angle

a figure formed by 2 rays with the same endpoint

vertex

the common endpoint of an angle

sides of the angle

2 rays

protractor

the device used to measure angles

perpendicular lines

2 lines that intersect so that the angles are all congruent right angles

complementary angle

angles add up to 90 degrees

supplementary angle

sum of the angles is 180 degrees

straight angle

180 degree angle

adjacent

angles that share a common vertex and common side but no interior points

right triangle

a triangle with one angle measuring 90 degrees

obtuse triangle

a triangle with 1 angle greater than 90 degrees

true for triangles

true or false: the sum of the length of 2 sides of a triangle is greater than the third side

180 degrees for triangle

the sum of all the measures of the angles inside a triangle

scalene triangle

a triangle with no congruent sides

isoceles triangle

a triangle with at least 2 congruent sides

equilateral triangle

a triangle with 3 congruent sides

polygon

a closed figure formed by joining straight segments

triangle

3 sided polygon

quadrilateral

4 sided polygon

pentagon

5 sided polygon

hexagon

6 sided polygon

heptagon

7 sided polygon

octagon

8 sided polygon

nonagon

9 sided polygon

decagon

10 sided polygon

regular polygon

a polygon with all sides and angles congruent is considered...

diagonal

a segment that connects nonconsecutive vertices - formula n(n-3) / 2

parallelogram

a quadrilateral with 2 sets of parallel sides

rectangle

a quadrilateral with 2 sets of parallel sides and 4 right angles

rhombus

a quadrilateral with 2 sets of parallel sides and 4 congruent sides

square

a quadrilateral with 2 sets of parallel sides and 4 congruent sides and angles

trapezoid

a quadrilateral with 1 sets of parallel sides

circle

a set of points equidistance from the center

radius

segment going from the center to any point of the circle

chord

segment containing 2 points on the circle

diameter

a chord passing through the center of the circle

circumference

distance around the circle

similar

geometric figures have the same shape, but not necessarily the same size

symmetry

describes the shape of a figure or object

reflective symmetry

a figure has this if it can be divided into two halves that are mirror images of each other

line of symmetry

a line that divides a figure into 2 halves that match exactly when the figure is folded on that line

rotational symmetry

the ability to rotate the figure around some point so that it concides with itself

center of symmetry

the point in the center of a figure that has rotation symmetry

measure

the number of degrees in an angle

acute angle

an angle less than 90 degrees but more than 0 degrees

bisector of an angle

the ray that divides the angle into two congruent adjacent angles

intersecting lines

Lines that cross at exactly one point

vertical angles

Two nonadjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines

transversal

A line that intersects two or more lines.

interior angles

angles on the inside of parallel lines cut by a transversal

exterior angles

angles on the outside of parallel lines cut by a transversal

corresponding angles

angles in the same place on different lines

alternate exterior angles

Angles that lie outside a pair of lines and on opposite sides of a transversal.

alternate interior angles

angles between 2 lines and on opposite sides of a transversal

perpendicular bisector

A line that is perpendicular to a segment at its midpoint.

convex of polygon

diagonals of polygon lie within the interior of the polygon, outward

concave of polygon

A polygon in which at least one vertex appear to be pushed inward.

base angles of triangle

other angles (isosceles triangle), The angles opposite the two equal sides in an isosceles triangles. A pair of angles that share a base as a common side in a trapezoid

acute triangle

a triangle with 3 acute angles (less than 90 degrees)

altitude of a triangle

of a triangle is a line segment drawn from a vertix of the triangle perpendicular to the side, every triangle has 3 altitude

altitude height of a triangle

of triangle is the length of the altitude

concurrent lines of a triangle

lines that intersect in a point within a triangle

orthocenter of a triangle

where the lines meet - concurrecy of the altitudes of a triangle

median of a triangle

is a line segment connecting a vertex of the traingle to the midpoint of the side oposite that vertex

centroid of a triangle

point of concurrency with with median lines

circumcenter of a triangle

point of concurrency with perpendicular bisector

congruent triangles

triangles for which corresponding sides are corresponding angles are congruent

angle bisector of a triangle

interior angles of a triangle

incenter of a triangle

point of concurrecy of angle bisector, center of circle drawn inside triangle

arc of a circle

is the set of points between and including two point on the circle

semicircle

Half of a circle, degree of measure of a emicircle is 180 degress

central angle of a circle

is an angle that has its vertix at the center of the circle, determines two arcs on a circle

minor arc of a circle

smaller of two arcs - measured in degrees

major arc of a circle

larger of two arcs - measured in degrees

inscribed angle of a circle

vertix is on a cirlec and whose sides are chords of the circle

intercepted are of a circle

interior arc of an inscribed angle and whose endpoints are on the sides of the angle

secant to a circle

line going through a circle, is a line that contains a chord

tangent to a circle

line touching outside of circle, is a line in the plane of the circle that intersects the circle in only one point.

concentric circles

are circles that have the ame center

sector of circle

is region bounded by two radii and an arc of the circle

polygon inscribed in a circle

if each of its vertices lies on the circle, polygon inside circle

polygon is circumscribed about a circle

if each of its sides is tangent to the circle, circle inside polgyon

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