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Civil Rights
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Generally, all rights rooted in the Fourteenth Amendment's guartee of equal protection under the law.
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terms list

Civil Rights
Generally, all rights rooted in the Fourteenth Amendment's guartee of equal protection under the law.
Separate-but-Equal Doctrine
The doctrine holding that separate but equal facilities do not violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
White Primary
A state primary election that restricts voting to whites only; outlawed by the Supreme Court in 1944.
Grandfather Clause
A device used by southern states to disenfranchise African Americans. It restricted voting to those whose grandfathers had voted before 1867.
Poll Tax
A special tax that must be paid as a qualification for voting. In 1964, the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the Constitution outlawed the poll tax in national elections, and in 1966 the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in all elections.
Literacy Test
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
De Facto Segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of past social and economic conditions and residential racial patterns.
De Jure Segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
In the context of civil rights, the transportation of public school students from areas where they live to schools in other areas to eliminate school segregation based on residential patterns.
Civil Disobedience
A nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.
A legal writ requiring a person's appearance in court to give testimony.
Someone who can claim a heritage from a Spanish-speaking country (other than Spain). The term is used only in the United States or other countries that receive immigrants - Spanish-speaking persons living in Spanish-speaking countries do not normally apply the term to themselves.
An alternative to the term Hispanic that is preferred by many.
The right to vote; the franchise.
The movement that supports political, economic, and social equality for women.
Gender Discrimination
Any practice, policy, or procedure that denies equality of treatment to an individual or a group because of gender.
Sexual Harassment
Unwanted physical or verbal conduct or abuse of a sexual nature that interferes with a recipient's job performance, creates a hostile work environment, or carries with it an implicit or explicit threat of adverse employment consequences.
Fertility Rate
A statistic that measures the average number of chilren that women in a given group are expected to have over the course of a lifetime.
Affirmative Action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Reverse Discrimination
The situation in which an affirmative action program discriminates against those who do not have minority status.
Mandatory Retirement
Forced retirement when a person reaches a certain age.
Civil Law
The law regulating conduct between private persons over noncriminal matters, including contracts, domestic relations, and business interactions.
Criminal Law
The law that defines crimes and provides punishment for violations. In criminal cases, the government is the prosecutor.
The age at which a person is entitled by law to the right to manage her or his own affairs and to the full enjoyment of civil rights.
Things necessary for existence. In contract law, necessaries include whatever is reasonably necessary for suitable subsistence as measured by age, state, condition in life and the like.
Common Law
Judge-made law that originated in England from decisions shaped according to prevailing customs. Decisions were applied to similar situations and thus gradually became common to the nation.

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