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what does aerobic metabolism in living cells consume?
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what does aerobic metabolism in living cells consume?
what does aerobic metabolism in living cells produce?
what does gas exchange require?
a large, thin, moist exchange surface; a pump to move air; a circulatory system to transport gases to the cells
what are the functions of the respiratory system?
gas exchange, pH regulation, vocalization, protection from foreign substances
what does cellular respiration refer to?
cellular metabolism that consumes oxygen
what is external respiration?
exchange of gases between the atmosphere and cells of the body
what does external respiration include?
ventilation, gas exchange at the lung and cells, and transport of gases in the blood
what is pulmonary ventilation?
movement of air into and out of the lungs
what does the respiratory system consist of?
anatomical structures involved in ventilation and gas exchange
what is the site of gas exchange?
what does the upper respiratory system include?
mouth, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx
what does the lower respiratory tract include?
trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, exchange surfaces of the alveoli
what is the thoracic cage bounded by?
ribs, spine, diaphragm
what connects the ribs?
two sets of intercostal muscles
what is each lung contained in?
double-walled pleural fluid
what anatomical structure enters the lungs?
two primary bronchi
what does each primary bronchus divide into?
progressively smaller bronchi and then into collapsible bronchioles
what do alveoli consist mostly of?
thin-walled type I alveolar cells for gas exchange
what do type II alveolar cells produce?
chemicals called surfactant
what does surfactant do?
helps prevent alveoli from collapsing
what surrounds each alveolus?
a network of capillaries
what does blood flow through the lungs equal?
cardiac output
is resistance blood flow in the pulmonary circulation high or low?
what is the average pulmonary arterial pressure?
25/8mm Hg
what percentage of the alveolar surface do blood vessels cover?
how does blood flow and blood pressure in the lungs compare to other tissues?
blood flow is higher and blood pressure is lower

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