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the study of atypical anatomical development or morphogenesis resulting in abnormal physical features
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the study of atypical anatomical development or morphogenesis resulting in abnormal physical features
Structural defect in an organ or body part because of an abnormal development process (ex: cleft palate)
Abnormal organization of cells into tissues and the structural consequences (eg: limb defect)
Alteration in form, shape or position of a normally formed body part by mechanical forces (ex: internal tibial torsion) - typically occurs in fetal period not embryogenesis
Abnormal breakdown of tissue in the normal fetus causing an anatomical defect of an organ or segment. May be infectious, vascular or mechanical in origin (ex: limb defect caused by amniotic bands)
Any of the four primary defects (malformation, dysplasia, deformation, disruption) causing a pattern of multiple secondary anomalities
a pattern of multiple malformations due to a single cause (genetic or environmental) such as that caused by the teratogen alcohol or absence of genetic material (deletion syndromes)
Complex motor pattern reproduced in relatively stable forms with minimal variability
Primitive reflexes are
movement patterns that fade over time and are brainstem mediated
Vestigial reflex
one that had an adaptive value in "lower species" - a phylogenic memory of when young animals were clinging to fur
Two types of Early (primitive) reflexes
Tonic and Common
Postural Stability
the ability to maintain the position of the body and specifically the center of mass within specific boundaries of space (stability limits)
Stability limits are
boundaries of an area of space in which the body maintains its position without changing the base of support
Three systems that interact for postural control
Neuromotor, Sensory, Musculoskeletal
Two types of postural adjustments
Reactive and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments
All moving and stationary reactions are governed by influences from these 4 systems
Visual, Somatosensory, Vestibular and Proprioceptive
Righting response
Head orientation in relation to the body or to gravity
Equilibrium response
Adjustment for changes of the body's orientation in space (e.g. righting head and body against gravity when tilted)
Protective response
Outstretched arm(s) or leg(s) to prevent fall or injury
Postural/Equilibrium Responses/Reactions are necessary for this Reaction
used in RPAs and APAs
Types of Automatic Postural Reactions/Responses
Righting, Equilibrium (Anticipatory and Reactive Postural Adjustments) and Protective
Reactive postural adjustments act to
restore or maintain body alignment and equilibrium with respect to gravity, the environment and other body parts during and after movement
Trying to catch your balance is an example of a
Reactive Postural Adjustment
RPAs are measured using a
moving platform paradigm in research
The guiding factor that will produce a RPA
Sensory stimulus - you must sense that you are off balance
Head control begins at
8 weeks of age
Head control is fairly good at
2 months
Adult RPAs are present by about
age 7 to 10 years
Reactive postural adjustment is a
change in posture that is in response to a movement that is imposed or occurs after a movement
Anticipatory Postural Adjustment is the
"setting the stage" - preparation of the body for a volitional movement - i.e. getting ready to reach
Practice and learning have a greater impact on..RPA vs.APA
May see APAs in sitting as early as
4 months
Trunk RPAs can be seen around this age
3-5 months
Mature trunk patterns in sitting are seen at least intermittently by
9 month of age
APAs are consistent in sitting by
12-15 months
The progression of APA is __ specific and can not be
task specific and cannot be generalized as easily as RPAs
APAs don't start until (what occurs)
you have experience in the position and with the task
Neck/Head Righting relationship at 0-4 months
immature form (log roll?)
Neck/Head righting relationship at 6 months
mature form - segmental (starts 4 to 6 mo)
Optical Righting
uses vision to orient the head
Labyrinthine Righting
orients the head in response to vestibular input
Landau Reaction is
a combination of Optical and Labyrinthine Righting and begins at 4-6 months. Baby moves into Superman position
In suspended prone position, the Landau reaction looks like
the baby makes a Superman
Automatic movements used to control the center of mass
Postural or Equilibrium Reactions
Postural/Equilibrium Reactions
Total body response to a slow shift of the center of gravity outside the base of support. The base of support might also be what moves
Equilibrium/Balance response in prone onset
4-6 months
The Onset of Equilibrium/Balance response in supine occurs at
7 months
Equilibrium/Balance response in sitting onset
8 months
Equilibrium/Balance response in quadruped onset
9-10 months
Equilibrium/Balance response in kneeling onset
10 months
Equilibrium/Balance response in standing onset
10-12 months
In second trimester, fetal growth increases...
12-fold (week 14-28)
in third trimester, fetal fat

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