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myths of aging
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can't drive (vision, hearing, reflex), can't live alone, all go to nsg home
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terms list

myths of aging
can't drive (vision, hearing, reflex), can't live alone, all go to nsg home
gerontological nursing
addresses/advocates special care needs of older adults
85yrs and older
over 65yrs
most rapid increase expected to occur due to baby boomers reaching 65
scientists who specialize the study of older adults
study of all the effects of normal aging and age-related diseases on humans
independent individual (sterotyping)
treating geriatric individuals like you would treat anyone else
cognitive ability (sterotyping)
teaching, vision, hearing, funds, transportation
ADL's (activities of daily living)
basic care activities that include mobility, bathing, hygiene, grooming, dressing, eating, and tolieting
biological theories
somatic mutation theory, programmed aging theory, cross linkage/collagen theory, immunity theory, stress theory
somatic mutation theory
miscoding of enzymes causing changes in DNA - Each time a cell divides, there is a chance that some of the genes will be copied incorrectly, this is called a mutation - Eventually the mutated cells accumulate, copy themselves and cause problems in the body's functioning related to aging
programmed aging theory
life span programmed within the cells - aging and death, according to this theory, are not a result of wear and tear or exposure, but are a programmed, natural and necessary part of genetics. In short, we are programmed to age and die.
Cross linkage/collagen theory
Chemical reaction between collagen and cross linkage, molecules cause loss of flexion and functional mobility - Collagen, which constitutes almost one-third of the body protein, is found in skin, bone, and tendons -With increasing age, the number of cross-linkages within and between collagen molecules increases, leading to crystallinity and rigidity, which are reflected in a general body stiffness
immunity theory
thymus getts smaller with age - ability to produce T-cells decrease - many age-related conditions are caused by a decrease in the function of the immune system ...
Stress theory
aging and death result from the effects of environmental stressors that cause wear and tear on cells and disrupt their function
psychosocial theories
activity theory/ disengagement theory/ continuity theory/
Activity theory
roles/responsibilities change throughout lifetime - life satisfaction depends on maintaining a involvement with life by developing new interests
disengagement theory
decrease interaction between the older person and others in his social system
continuity theory
successful methods used throughout life for adjusting and adapting to life. Events are repeated - characteristics, traits, habits, values and associations
loss of brain function that occurs with certain - slow onset of greater than 6 months
acute confusion - onset of 6 months or less
numerous medications
bowel - (medication, hydration, fiber, lack of exercise)
glomerular filtration process (slows down)
electrolyte imbalance causes
hypokalemia/ hypocalcemia/ hyponaturemia
BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy)
over growth of the prostate gland
muscles lose flexibility/ alveoli thicken and decrease in size and number - less effective gas exchange/ structural change (skeletal)
common respiratory disorders
alveoli sacs lose elasticity -- high levels of CO2 -- O2 can't be used over 1-2 liters per hour
cardiovascular system
ouput decreases/ HR slows/ elevated b/p because arterial elastisicty decreases
drug of choice for chronic heart faliure - hold if apical pulse is below 60
common cardiovascular disorders
Chronic CHF
edema in LE/ABD/Liver - from aging process
gastronintestional system - GI
teeth loss/ decrease in taste buds/ gag reflex/ slow gastric emptying/ constipation/ decreased liver function
common GI disorders
over/under nutrition - constipation - dehydration - dental disorder
urinary system
kidbey decrease in size/ decrease in function/ increase BUN/ renal function increase when laying
creatinine clearance test
better indicator for kidney function
common urinary disorders
UTI/ incontinence
types of incontinence
functional/ urge/ reflex/ stress/ total
bladder management technique
kegel/ scheduled/ habit/ bladder retraining/ prompted voiding
muscle mass and elasticity diminish resulting in decreased strength, endurance, coordination and increased reaction time - (increased time it takes to react)/ bone demineralization/ stiff joints/ loss of R.O.M.
common musculoskeletal disorders
osteoporosis/ osteoarthritis (deg. arthritis)/ fractured hip
fractured hip
what causes death and disability in women
sensory changes
PERRLA/ lacrimal glands secrete less fluid/ cerumen build up - entropion (turning eyes in/out)
DM type 2
reproductive (female)
estrogen production decreases with menopause/ less secretions/ less mucus membranes/no change in libido/
E.R.T (estrogen replacement therapy)
women can take ____________because low estrogen contributes in osteoporosis
reproductive (male)
testosterone production decreases resulting in decrease testicles/ prostate enlargement/ impotency
subcutaneous tissue and elastin fibers diminish - thin skin / body temp diminish because of decreased perspiration and decreased circulation/ vascular fragility causes senile purpura (lil purple bruise like spots)
common integumentary disorders
pressure ulcers/ shingles/ skin cancer
healthcare delivery system
services to meet the health needs of individuals
primary care
promote wellness and prevent illness or disability, care coordinatied by PCP
Secondary care
dx and tx - occur after synptoms of illness
tertiary care
restoring individuals to the state of health that existed before illness
single-payer system
government is the only reimbursement for healthcare costs
medigap insurance
to pay cost not covered by medicare
managed care
cost-efficient manner
primary care provider
client sees first
HMO - health maintenance organization
prepaid health plans that provide primary health care
capitated rates
preset flat fees
single point of entry
entry through desiginated point by plan
prospective payment
predetermined rate
DRG - diagnosis-related group
average cost of care for each diagnosis
pays for health services for low income families
public, public/private and private
health care services are financed and delivered by:
challenges of the health care delivery system
public disillusionment/ loss of health care decision control/ decreased hospital use/ ethical issues
when the goal of a health care service is to decrease the risk to clients for a disease this care is called:
what must a client be to obtain home health care
MANDATORY system of granting licenses - regulated by each state
VOLUNTARY process that evaluates and establishes compliance
additional confirmation of quality - above min standards
any facility that chooses to be reimbursed by government funds must be:
long-term care facility
sevices to individuals who have continuing healthcare needs but are not acutely ill
services for clients who are out of the acute stage of their illness
assisted living
a combination of housing and services for those who need help with ADL's
adult day care
protective setting for adults who are unable to stay alone but do not need 24 hour care
respite care
provides a break to caregivers for a few hours a week
client with 6 months or less to live
helping individuals reach their optimal level of physical, mental and psychosocial functioning
participate in the planning
as a member of the IHCT(interdisciplinary health care team) the LPN must be able to :
Foster care/home
individuals unable to live independently - but do not require care in a healthcare setting
2 or more illnesses
abnormal state of motor and psychic hypoactivity
defective or absent vocal function
any inflammatory condition of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, heat, redness and limitation of movement; two types
difficulty swallowing
paralysis on one side of the body
decreased hearing associated with aging
decreased vision more pronounced
body's vulnerability to infection and cancer
impairment of the immune system and weakness of the body's defenses increase
skin (integumentary system)
dry/thin/flaky/wrinkling/sagging/liver spots/easily bruised/poor healing
cardiovascular/pulmonary systems
decrease in cardiac output/ decrease in vital capacity/ increased BP
subacute care facilities
part of a free standing long term care facility
home health care
waht is the fastest growing segment of the health care delivery system
one of the most common disorders in older adults
an eye disease that damages the optic nerve and impairs vision
macular degeneration
eye disease caused by degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea and results in blurred vision; can cause blindness
a vision defect commonly known as nearsightedness
epidural hematoma
momentary unconsciousness - bleeding in the edidural space
subdural hematoma
immediate pressure on the brain
blood in the subarachnoid space interferes with reabsorption if CSF
slowing pulse are effects of pressure on the
surgically removing a bone flap allowing room for expansion
stroke by ischemia
oxygenation deprivation
mini stroke
mini stroke
inability to reconize familiar objects
alzheimer's disease
deg. neurological disease wherein brain cells are destroyed
preceive environmental stimuli/reaction
limbic system
CT (computer tomography)
allergy of shellfish, iodine - increased fluid intake
embolic and thrombolic CVA
position head of bed flat to increase cerebral perfusion
causs of CVA
blood clot/HTN/ hemorrage/ vasospasm
slowness of voluntary movement and speech
loss of balance
invol. eye movement
cva drug - given within 2-3 hours
hemoragic stroke
35 degree angle
linear fracture
non displaced crack in the bone
broken bone fragments
depressed fracture
of the skull where the bone is pushed in
basilar fracture
A break in bone at the base of the skull - clear liquid leaking from ear/nose
Homonymous hemianopsia
medical term for a type of partial blindness resulting in a loss of vision in the same visual field of both eyes.
a condition in which fatty material collects along
para sympathetic
decreased HR and BP
increased resp. increased HR increased BP
eye movement
eye movement
facial movement
eye movement
facial movement
hearing, balance
taste swallowing
vagal (pulse)reflex
tongue movement
spinal nerves
31 pairs/ conduct impuulses
sympathetic nervous system
prepares body to meet an emergency - fight/flight
maintains normal body functions
pupils/headache/restlessness, change in VS
indicators for intracranial pressure
Mask signs of ICP
coughing/sneezing/ valsalva maneuver(forcible exhalation)
what a client with ICP should avoid
head injury/ICP return to hospital indicators
LOC/ seizures/ inability to arouse/ bleeding or watery drainage from ears or nose/ blurred vision/ speech problems or vomiting
osmotic diuretics
decrease fluid and ICP
anti parkinson's agents
L=Dopa/sinemet - decrease rigidity and tremors
anti cholonergic drug (parkinson)
test the discharge for glucose and inform RN or MD
the client with a head injury develops a clear nasal discharge. the nurse should
cold hands
the patient in the ER was in a car accident and while not seriously injured is exhibiting sign of "fright or fight" sympathetic nervous system response. the nurse should expect
the client has decrease in rigidity and tremors
elderly male has parkinson's. he has been put on levodopa (L-Dopa) 500mg bid. what would indicate that the meds are working
on her side with her knees curled to her chest
the nurse is assisting a client during a lumbar puncture . the nurse positions the client
lumbar puncture
the adolescent patient has symptoms of meningitis:nuchal rigidity, fever, vomiting, and lethargy. The nurse knows to prepare for
used for treating symptoms associated with Parkinson disease and parkinsonism-like symptoms
digoxin cognex
has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer
Treat blood clots
is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease
a treatment for all stages of Alzheimer's that helps slow the progression of symptoms
the first and only patch for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.
is an antiplatelet drug
used in patients with schizophrenia to reduce the side effects of antipsychotic treatment, such as parkinsonism
Symmetrel (Amantadine)
is an antiviral medication which was originally prescribed to treat Parkinson's Disease
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression.
alzheimer's =intellect and parkinson's = motor
difference between parkinson's and alzheimer's

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