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Greek Music was during
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4th - 1st Century BCE
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Greek Music was during
4th - 1st Century BCE
Instruments in Greek Music
Lyre and aulos
5-7 strings, cult of god apollo
single or double reed cult of Dionysus
problem of studying early music
so much work is gone
we can study
philosophy, scares, and thinking of how music was in society
most important instruments
lyre and aulos
there was very little instruction
in performance practice
interested in numbers, viewed music numerically music reflects the concepts of the universe -> the celestial bodies create music, philosopher and writer
astronomer, picked up ideas from pythagoras, certain pitches/modes apply to different planets
aristotle and plato
spent much time discussing music education, doctrine of ethos (music is able to affect actions and behavior)
If music is powerful
could be negative, A and P thought music needs to be for young people (make sure it is not negative) have to instruct --> need to know how to use
mozart effect
music can discipline the mind
music and arts = SIMILAR, 1st centrury BCE 5 century CE/AD
wrote 1st ook specifically about music
de insitituiane musica
the fundamentals of music book spells out 3 types of music
musica mundana
music of the world and spheres
musica humana
music of the body, to be healthy we need to be in harmony of mind, body, and spirit
musica instrumentals
instrumental music
vocal, monophonic (single melody), religious
types of chant
mozrabic (spain), gallican (gall aka France), old roman, gregorian
Pope Gregory II
took chants and organized/compiled them, spread across europe, thus gregorian chant
king of france, crowned emperor in 800, tried to supress all dialects of chant --> gregorian, political move, make this a standard
biblical/non biblical, poetry/prose
direct chant
everyone sings
two choirs equal and response
unequal call and response
one note per syllable
many notes per syllable
2 or 3 notes per syllable
HUGE interest in chant exploded interest people loved it because it seemed so peaceful
music is finally notated in the
9th century
early chants did not need pitch reference
widely known basic sketch was enough
staff line introduced during
10th centruy
illuminated manuscript
the embellishment which created beautiful images on the manuscript
non diastematic
open staff
on staff lines
neumatic families
various types of neumes for each region of western europe
Guido of Arezzo
mocrologues first theorist of medieval ages, monk, choir director very interested in pedagogy
4 major contributions by guido arezzo
4 staff lines, church modes (did not invent, conotied) solfege system, guidonian hand
gudios major contributions were introduced in
micorlogus (one of the most influencial books to theoretical contributions
intoducing a new text to a chant, alleluia was the first peice that was troped due to the mellisma on "-ia"
Hildegard of Bingen
abyss of monestery very devout , music art medical and poet 12th centruy
sung in latin, sacred, and monophonic
sacred musical drama and litrugical dramas
performed like an opera/musical, chracters, movement , sacred in subject
difference between musical drama and liturgical dramas
litergical was performed in church during the litrugical hours, whereas the sacred musical drama was in church but not during the hours
hildegard introduced text painting
the musical line imitates the text
secular monophony
very extended oral secuar tradition sacred is more known because it is writtend down
student, like to have a good tiem and sing on weekends, wine, woman , and poking fun at the establishment were some of there interests, 12th centruy ---- 13 and 14
wondering musicians/entertainment very light and simple music during 11, 12,13,14 centruy
south france langue d'oc
north france langue d'oil performed for elite higher class
differences between langue d'oc and lange d'oil
french has alot of accents you will not find accents in langue d'oc langue d'oil has accents
multiple voice parts, 2 or more melodic lines, did not enter western world until 9th centruy ---> polyphony had been around but not commited to paper
theories as to why polyphony started
people looked for new ways to mark litrugical works, all linked to gregorian chant, underscore important days of year, history of architecture the space in which they sang ---> will hear the overtone series
parallel organum
use strict intervals, first type of organum parallel 4s to 5s
musica enchirades scolia
9th centruy
leonin and perotin
12th centruy directors of choire at school of notre dame in paris caomposed several organum florid/mellismatic
patterns of litagures were very
vocal genre very furstrating have to redefine it every centruy 1st phase of evolution, grows out of organum (discantus)
part of organum set in discant style
motet song
clausula section and add words to it...new text added to top voice, sacred because orgranum chant
bottom text of motet
top text of motet
new text
franco of cologne and petrus de cruce
germen but french composers late 13th centruy
franconian motets
chant on bottom frenc in middle layering effect, slow, fast, faster
petronian motet
latin french french, bottom voice very strict 2nd and 1st voice are faster, the layering is emphasised more
modal rhythmic notation
mensural notation franconian notationa certain symbol stands for a note value --> shirft from notre dame to nesural notation
dupal meter is not found BECAUSE
TRIPLE was the trinity
mensural notation
using symbols for notation franconian is a subset
the ars nova
14th century france ---- latin - new art
2 new tretises during the 13 and 14 centruy
jead de maris -ars nove muice and phillipe de vitrey - ars nova LED TO NEW RHYTHMIC DEVELOPMENTwere aware of the change in music wrote books explaining
new developmetns during 13 and 14 century
rhythimic development introduction of time signature perfection (3) and imperfection (2)
2 new techniques
hocket and isorhythm
antiphonal chant
when a chant is performed in which two or more groups alternate
ars nova
style of poloyphony from 14th centruy france, distinguished from earlier styles by a new system of rhythmic notation that allowed duple or triple division of note values syncopation and great rhythmic flexibility
ars subtilior
late 14th cent. rhythms crazy too much usually complicated shapes heart shapes
ancient greek reed instrument usually played in pairs
french forme fixe normally in three stanzaas in which each stanza has the musical form aab and ends with a refrain instrumental piece inspired by the genre of narrative poetry
14th century italian song genre with the form AbbaA in which A is the ripresa or frefain and the single stanza consists of two piedi BB and a volta a sung to the music of the ripresa
14th centruy italian form feature tow voices in canon overa free untexted tenor
in notre dame polyphony a self-contained section of an organum that closes with a cadence
in an isorhythmic composition a repeated melodic pattern as opposed to the repeating rhythmic pattern
direct chant
pertaining to a manner of performing chant with out alternation between groups or between soloist and group
12th centruy style of polyphony in which the upper voice or voices have about one to three notes for each note of the lower voice treble part
florid or mellismatic organum
12th century style of two voice polyphony in whcih the lower voice sustains relatively long notes while the upper voice sings note groups of varying lenght above each note of the lower voice
formes fixes
schemes of poetic and musical repetiotion each featureing a refarina used in late medieval and 15th centruy french chansons in particular the ballade rondeau and virelai
franconian motet
system of notation described by franco of cologne aroudn 1280 using noteshapes to indicate durations
goliards songs
medieval latin songs associated with the goliards who were wandering sutdents and clerics
in 13th centruy and 14th century polyphony the deice of alternating rapidly between two voices each resting while the other sings as if a single melody is split between them or a composition based on this device
repetiotion in a voice part of an extended pattern of durations throughout a section or an entire composition
itinerant medieval musician or street entertainer
in chant an effusive melisma particularly the melisma on -ia in alleluia
neume like noteshape used to indicate a short rhythmic pattern in 12 - 16 century notation
liturgical drama
dialogue on a sacred subject set to music and usuallyperformed with action and linked to the liturgy
plucked string instrument with a resonating sound box, two arms crossbar and strings that run parallel to the soundboard and attachto the crossbar
a long melodic passage sung to a single syllable of text
german singerl of love a poet composer of medieval germany who wrote monophonic songs particularly about love in middle high german
music or musical texture cosnsisting of an accompanied melody
neumatic notation
in chant having about one to six notes sung to each syllable of text
ordinarry of the mass
texts of mas that remain the same on most or all days of the church calendar, although the tunes may change
parallel organum
type of polyphony in which an added voice moves exact parallel to a chant normally a perfect fifth below it either voice may be doubled at the octave
music or musical texture consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of indepnedent melody see also counterpoint
proper of the mass
texts of the mass that are assigned to aparticular day in the church clanendar
responsorial chant
pertaining to a matter of performing
rhythmic modes
system of six durational pattersn for late 12th and 13th centuries used as the basis of the rhythmic notation of the notre dame composers
french forme fixe with a single stanza and the musical form ABaAabAB with capital letters indicating lines of refrain and lowercase letters indicating new text set to msuic from the refrain form in seventeenth and eitghteenth century instrumental music in which a repeated strain alternates with other strains ain in the pattern AABACA
a method of assigning syllables to steps in a scale used to make it easier to identify and sing the whole tones and semitones in a melody
in an isorhythimic composition an extended rhythmic pattern repeated one or more times usually in the tenor compare color
addition to an existing chant consisting of words and meldoy a mellisma words only set to an exsisting melisma or another melody
a poet composer of southern france who wrote monophonic songs in occitan (langue d'oc)) in the 12 or 13 century
a poet composer of northern france who wrote monophonic songs in old french (langue d'oil)in the 12 or 13 century
french forme fixe in the pattern AbbaAbbaAbbaA in which a refrain A althernates with stanzas with the musical form bba the a using the same music as the refrain
1st therorist of medievla ages monk, choir director, very interested in pedagogical....
contributions by guido
4 staff lines, churd modes did not invent conofied solfege sustem guidonian hand
guidonian hand
used hand to teach choir a new melody
langue d'oil
trouveres, french, HAS ACCENTS
langue d'oc
troubadour has no ACCENTS NONE
petronian motet
fl. (1270 - 1300) cp 15, latin french, french, bottom voice very strict 2na and first voice are faster the laryig effect is empasised more
mensural notation
using symbols for notation franconian is a subset
organum purum
use strict intervals first type of organum parallel 4s 5s
wrote 1st book specifically about music -- de institutiante musica (the fundamentals of musi) book spells out 2 types of music
music mundana
in boethius book world: music of the world
music humana
in boethius book: music of the body
music instrumetals
in boethius book: music of instruments
sacred drama
performed like an opera/musical, characters movement in church but not an integral part of service /8hours
landidni cadence
the end of every line is makred by a cadence swhich is usually of a type now known as the under third or landini cadence the progression from the major sixth to the ovtave is ornamented by a lower neighbor leaping up a third in the top voice. a great appeal in landinis music
divine office
8 cannonical hours the type of chant was antiphons psalms hyms resonories ect
middle of night
at sunrise
9 am
3 pm
at sunset
after vespers
strict interval movement
modified organum
begins at unison and quicky expands out to 4th and stays there and goes back
oblique organum
drone quality
free organum
most anyting goes, not very strict
florid/mellismatic organum - organum purum style
chant is strected out with stuff on top
florid/mellismatic organum - discant style
chant on the bottom the 2 voices move in a note against note fasion but it is not as strict
franco of cologne
chant on bottom french in middle slow fast faster layering effect, german, but french frecnh composers, late 13th cent.
petrus de cruce
latin frehc french bottom voice very strict 2nd and first voice are faster layering effect is empahsissed more
ars nova
phillipe de vitry 1322-23 new rhythmic development
ars nova musice
jeand de muris 1321 new rhythmic developemnt duple
guido 1025-28 four staff lines church modes solfege system and guidonian hand
musica enchiriadis
anonymous 850-900
scolica enchiriadis
anonymous ca 850-900
cannonical hours
the divince office what mons and nuns do the service that is not the mass know 1
church modes
there system of scales moves by half steps formed their tones guido of arezzo micologus
a long mellisma typically in the alleluia chant on ia
how you connect a bunch of notes 3 + 2 + 2 rhythmic mode 1
petronian chant
13th cent. layering effect of voices
guido of arezzo micorlogus 6 syllables solfege, 11th cent. guido hand
ars nova
new art de vitry time signature duple meter

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