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isotonic contraction
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a contraction in which the tension within the muscle remains the same and the length changes is called a (an)
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terms list

isotonic contraction
a contraction in which the tension within the muscle remains the same and the length changes is called a (an)
another name for chewing is called
conversion of ADP + Pi-->ATP
creatine phosphate (phosphocreatine) is found in the mitochodria of muscle and is used for
the latent period
during which phase of the twitch contraction, is there a triggering of the release of calcium ions into the sarcoplasm
first class
flexing, extending, and hyperextending the head is an example of what lever class
sarcoplasmic reticulum
in a resting muscle where is calcium stored
third class lever
most muscle contractions (example flexion of the elbow) are of this lever type
the connective tissue covering individual muscle fibers (cells) is called
the ion needed for muscle contraction is
the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscluar junction is
the small contractile unit in muscle cells
I band
the strations of muscles consist of light and dark bands. the light band is called
the amount of load, the initial length of muscle fibers, and the recruitment of motor units
the strength of a muscle contraction is influenced by
enfloding of the sarcolemma
the T tubules are
actin, troponin, and tropomyosin
what are the types of protein molecules found in thin filaments
which protein is found in thick filaments
study of muscles
ability of muscular tissue to contract forcefully when stimulated by an action potential
electrical excitability
ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals called action potentials.
ability of muscular tissue to stretch without being damaged.
ability of muscular tissue to return to its original length and shape after contraction or extension.
hypodermis aka
subcutaneous layer
a dense sheet or broad band of irregular connective tissue that covers the body, supports and surrounds muscles and other organs of the body.
the outermost layer, encircling the entire muscle
bundles of fibers
surrounds groups of 10-100 or more muscle fibers
when the connective tissue elements extend as a broad, flat layer
Tiny cylindrical structures, made of protein filaments, that enable muscles to contact
somatic motor neuron
Neuron that stimulates skeletal muscle to contract
cytoplasm of a muscle cell
modified plasma membrance that surrounds each muscle fiber and can propagate its own action potential
a muscle that contracts while another relaxes
a muscle that relaxes while another contracts
the structure formed by a T tubule with a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) terminal cisterns on either side.
power stroke
Pull thin filament across thick filament
latent period
the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it
protein that connects M line to Z line; maintains the position of the myosin in the center of the sarcomere and prevents the sarcomere from being pulled apart
motor units
a group of muscle fibers activated by branches of a single motor neuron
a single action potential that causes a muscle to contract locally for a few milliseconds
smooth sustained contraction of twitches
refractory period
the time after a neuron fires or a muscle fiber contracts during which a stimulus will not evoke a response
sliding filaments
muscles contract because the thin/thick filaments slide past eachother
neuromuscular junction
the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
The point at which a muscle's tendon attaches to the more stationary bone.
where a muscle attacheds to a join that DOES move when the muscle contracts
satellite cell
Cell located around ganglion cells of sensory and autonomic
immature muscle cells
a neurotransmitter liberated by many peripheral nervous system neurons and some central nercous system neurons. it is excitatory at neuromuscluar junctions but inhibitory at some other synapses, ex: slows heart rate
A mineral that is essential for bone growth, teeth development, blood coagulation, and many other functions
a highly branched polymer of glucose containing thousands of subunits; functions as a compact store of glucose molecules in liver an muscle fibers (cells).
smaller structures within myofibrils
one of many contractile filaments that make up a striated muscle fiber
slow oxidative (SO)
good for endurance, uses o2 all day long. ex: neck contraction
fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG)
quickly uses ATP
fast glycolytic (FG)
good for about 60 seconds, use up atp, theres no power left.
first class lever
neck holding up head; fulcrum, effort, load
second class lever
standing on toes; fulcrum, load, effort
third class lever
lifting item with hands and arms; effort, fulcrum, load
properties of muscle
electrical excitability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
connective tissue around muscle
epimysium, perimysium, fasicles, myofibrils
types of muscle contractions
twitch, wave summation, unfused tetanus, fused tetanus

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