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An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the misinterpretation of a statement that is ambiguous owing to some structural defect
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Amphiboly
An informal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the misinterpretation of a statement that is ambiguous owing to some structural defect
Antecedent
The component of a conditional statement immediately following the word '' if, ''; the component of a conditional statement to the left of the horseshoe
Argument
A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion)
Argument based on mathematics
A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement
Argument based on signs
An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes
Argument form
An arrangement of words and letters such that the uniform substitution of terms or statements in place of the letters results in an argument; an arrangement of statement variables and operators such that the uniform substitution of statements in place of the variables results in an argument
Argument from analogy
An inductive argument that depends on the existence of a similarity between two things or states of affairs
Argument from authority
An inductive argument in which the conclusion rests on a statement made by some presumed authority or witness
Argument from definition
A deductive argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion
Argument from example
An argument that purports to prove something by giving one or more examples of it
Categorical syllogism
A syllogism in which all three statements are categorical propositions
Causal inference
An inductive inference that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about the effect, or from knowledge of an effect to a claim about the cause
Cogent argument
An inductive argument that is strong and has true premises
Conditional statement
An'' if ... then'' statement
Consequent
The component of a conditional statement immediately following the word '' then''; the component of a conditional statement that is not the antecedent
Counterexample method
A method for proving invalidity that consists in constructing a substitution instance having true premises and false conclusion
Deductive argument
An argument in which the premises are claimed to support the conclusion in such a way that it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
Disjunctive syllogism
A syllogism having a disjunctive statement for one or both of its premises
Explanandum
The component of an explanation that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained
Explanans
The component of an explanation that explains the event or phenomenon indicated by the explanandum
Explanation
A group of statements intended to shed light on some event or phenomenon
Expository passage
A kind of nonargument consisting of a topic sentence and one or more other sentences that expand or elaborate on the topic sentence
Factual claim
A claim that something is true; a claim that evidence or reasons are being presented
General statement
A statement that makes a claim about all the members of a class
Hypothetical syllogism
A syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises
Illustration
A kind of nonargument composed of statements intended to show what something means or how something should be done
Inductive argument
An argument in which the premises are claimed to support the conclusion in such a way that it is improbable that the premises be true and the conclusion false
Inductive generalization
An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group
Inference
The reasoning process expressed by an argument
Inferential claim
A claim that alleged evidence or reasons support or imply something
Invalid deductive argument
A deductive argument such that it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
Logic
The science that evaluates arguments
Modal logic
A kind of logic that deals with concepts such as possibility, necessity, belief, and doubt
Necessary condition
The condition represented by the consequent in a conditional statement
Particular statement
A statement that makes a claim about one or more (but not all) members of a class
A kind of nonargument composed of statements that recommend something to the reader or listener
Prediction
An inductive argument that proceeds from knowledge of some event in the relative past to a claim about some other event in the relative future
Premise
A statement in an argument that sets forth evidence
Premise indicator
A word that provides a clue to identifying a premise
Proposition
The information content of a statement
Report
A kind of nonargument consisting of one or more statements that convey information about some situation or event

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