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What is the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other?
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What is the process in which certain cognitive functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other?
According to Piaget, in which stage, between ages two and seven, does children's use of symbolic thinking grow, mental reasoning emerge, and use of concepts increase?
The child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present.
description of Piaget's symbolic function?
What is the term for the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring others?
_________is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.
zone of proximal development
According to Vygotsky, what is the level at which a child cannot fully perform a task independently but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent?
What is the term for the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth?
What term refers to the way in which an individual combines words and phrases to form sentences?
Fast Mapping
What is the term for instances in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter?
Psychosocial development
What is Erikson's term for development that encompasses changes in individuals' understanding of themselves and of others' behavior?
initiative versus guilt stage
According to Erikson, children three to six years of age, who experience conflict between independence of action and the results of that action, are in the __________.
self concept
What is the term for a person's set of beliefs about what he or she is like as an individual?
Race dissonance
What is the term for the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people?
Social Learning
The __________ approach believes children learn gender-related behaviors and expectations by observing others and noticing that they are rewarded for acting in gender-appropriate ways.
What type of play involves action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other?
What is the type of play in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves?
What is the term for play in which two or more children interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing?
- Authoritative
What is the term for parents who are firm, set clear and consistent limits, and try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way but at the same time providing love and support?
a greater sense of independence and autonomy in the child, who will adhere to social and cultural norms
While spanking may produce a child's immediate compliance, the long-term side effects may include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
Moral development
Which term refers to the changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues?
throwing a ball
what is considered a gross motor activity?
Children often express psychological symptoms differently than adults.
Which of the following is the most likely reason why children's psychological disorders are neglected?
- Learning disability
If a child is demonstrating difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, the child is exhibiting a(n) __________.
Concrete operational
What is the term that refers to the stage of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic?
In the information-processing model, what is the term for the ability to record, store, and retrieve information?
Zone of proximal development
What is Vygotsky's term for the level at which a child can almost, but not quite, understand or perform a task?
Mental Age
What is the term that Binet developed for the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age?
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
What is the name of the test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (or nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score?
Fluid intelligence
Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory?
Crystallized intelligence
Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations?
Self-esteem; self-concept
__________ is an individual's overall and specific self-evaluation (which is more emotionally oriented); whereas __________ reflects beliefs and cognitions about the self.
Preconventional morality
According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects concrete interests of the individual considered in terms of rewards and punishments?
Social problem solving
What is the term that means the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in mutually satisfactory ways?
__________ is the process by which parents and children jointly control children's behavior.
By definition, a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them is called a __________ family.

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