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public opinion
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citizens' attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events
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terms list

public opinion
citizens' attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events
values (or beliefs)
the basic principles that shape a person's opinions about political issues and events
political ideology
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the role of government
attitude (or opinion)
a specific preference on a specific issue
equality of opportunity
a universally shared american ideal, according to which all have the freedom to use whatever talents and walth they possess to reach their full potential
political socialization
the induction of individuals into the process of learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based
agents of socialization
the social institutions, including families and schools, that help shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values
gender gap
a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in view between women and men
today, generally supports political and social reform; extensive government intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment
today, this term refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulas and economic arrangements. many also believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens' freedoms
public opinion polls
the scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population
probability sampling
a method used by pollers to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent
random digit dialing
a poll in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample
selection bias
a polling error in which the sample is not representative of the population being studies, so that some opinions are over-or underrepresented
sampling error
a polling error that arises on account of the small size of the sample
measurement error
the failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions
push polling
a polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion
salient interests
attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them
illusion of salience
the impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when it actually is not
bandwagon effect
a shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner
equal time rule
the requirement that broadcasters provide candidates for the same political office an equal opportunity to communicate their messages to the public
right of rebuttal
an FCC regulation giving individuals the right to have the opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on a radio or TV broadcast
fairness doctrine
an FCC requirement that broadcasters who air programs on controversial issues provide time for opposing views
prior restraint
an effort by a government agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship. in the united states, the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances
selection bias (in the media)
the predisposition of consumers to choose particular types of stories
agenda setting
the process by which it is determined which issues are taken up by political actor and institutions
a process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or a political actor
the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted

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