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Acquired immunity
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see Passive immunity
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terms list

Acquired immunity
see Passive immunity
Active immunity
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artificial antigens
Acute infection
those that generally appear suddenly or last a short time
Airborne precautions
methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns
Airborne transmission
infectious agent transmitted by droplets or dust
immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies
agents that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms
freedom from infection or infectious material
an antigen that originates in a person's own body
bacteria in the blood
the most common infection-causing microorganisms
substances produced by some normal flora (e.g., enterobacteria), that can be lethal to related strains of bacteria
Bloodborne pathogens
those microorganisms carried in blood and body fluids that are capable of infecting other persons with serious and difficult to treat viral infections, namely hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and HIV
Body substance isolation
(BSI) generic infection control precautions for all clients except those with diseases transmitted through the air
a person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent and serves as a potential source of infection, yet does not manifest any clinical signs of disease
Cell-mediated defenses
see Cellular immunity
Cellular immunity
also known as cell-mediated defenses, occur through the T-cell system
the action by which leukocytes are attracted to injured cells
Chronic infection
infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years
Circulating immunity
see Humoral immunity
free of potentially infectious agents
the presence of organisms in body secretions or excretions in which strains of bacteria become resident flora but do not cause illness
Communicable disease
a disease that can spread from one person to another
Compromised host
any person at increased risk for an infection
Contact precautions
methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents easily transmitted by direct client contact or by contact with items in the client's environment
laboratory cultivations of microorganisms in a special growth medium
the movement of blood corpuscles through a blood vessel wall
denotes the likely presence of microorganisms, some of which may be capable of causing infection
agents that destroy pathogens other than spores
Droplet nuclei
residue of evaporated droplets that remains in the air for long periods of time
Droplet precautions
methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns
process in which leukocytes move through the blood vessel wall into the affected tissue spaces
developing from within
developing from without
material, such as fluid and cells, that has escaped from blood vessels during the inflammatory process and is deposited in tissue or on tissue surfaces
a plasma protein that is converted to fibrin when it is released into the tissues and, together with thromboplastin and platelets, forms an interlacing network making a barrier to wall off an area
Fibrous (scar) tissue
connective tissue repair of wounds with tissue that can proliferate under conditions of ischemia and altered pH
infection-causing microorganisms that include yeasts and molds
Granulation tissue
young connective tissue with new capillaries formed in the wound healing process
Humoral immunity
antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produced by B cells
increased blood flow to an area
Iatrogenic infection
infections that are the direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures
Immune defenses
see Specific defenses
a specific resistance of the body to infection; it may be natural, or resistance developed after exposure to a disease agent
see Antibodies
the disease process produced by microorganisms
local and nonspecific defensive tissue response to injury or destruction of cells
practices that prevent the spread of infection and communicable disease
white blood cells
an increase in the number of white blood cells
Local infection
an infection that is limited to the specific part of the body where the microorganisms remain
large phagocytes
the aggregating or lining up of substances along a surface or edge (eg, the lining up of white blood cells against the wall of a blood vessel during the inflammatory process)
Medical asepsis
all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth, and spread of microorganisms
Nonspecific defenses
bodily defenses that protect a person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure
Nosocomial infections
infections associated with the delivery of health care services in a health care facility
Occupational exposure
skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
Opportunistic pathogen
a microorganism causing disease only in a susceptible individual
microorganisms that live in or on another from which it obtains nourishment
Passive immunity
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced by another source
the ability to produce disease; a pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease
cells that ingest microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles
a source of microorganisms
Resident flora
microorganisms that normally reside on the skin, mucous membranes, and inside the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or body tissues
occurs when bacteremia results in systemic infection
Specific (immune) defenses
immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents
Sterile field
a specified area that is considered free from microorganisms
Sterile technique
practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms;
a process that destroys all microorganisms, including spores and viruses
Surgical asepsis
see Sterile technique
Systemic infection
when pathogens spread and damage different parts of the body
Universal precautions (UP)
techniques to be used with all clients to decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens; currently, Standard Precautions incorporate UP and BSI
Vector-borne transmission
a vector is an animal or flying or crawling insect that serves as an intermediate means of transporting the infectious agent
Vehicle-borne transmission
a vehicle is any substance that serves as an intermediate means to transport and introduce an infectious agent into a susceptible host through a suitable portal of entry
ability to produce disease
nucleic acid-based infectious agents
Origin of disease.

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