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absence of a fever
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Afebrile
absence of a fever
Apical pulse
a central pulse located at the apex of the heart
Apical-radial pulse
measurement of the apical beat and the radial pulse at the same time
Apnea
a complete absence of respirations
Arrhythmia
a pulse with an abnormal rhythm
Arterial blood pressure
the measure of the pressure exerted by the blood as it pulsates through the arteries
Arteriosclerosis
a condition in which the elastic and muscular tissues of the arteries are replaced with fibrous tissue
Auscultatory gap
the temporary disappearance of sounds normally heard over the brachial artery when the sphygmomanometer cuff pressure is high and the sounds reappear at a lower level
Basal metabolic rate
(BMR) the rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breathing
Body temperature
the balance between the heat produced by the body and the heat lost from the body
Bradycardia
abnormally slow pulse rate, less than 60 per minute
Bradypnea
abnormally slow respiratory rate, usually less than 10 respirations per minute
Cardinal signs
see Vital signs
Chemical thermogenesis
the stimulation of heat production in the body through increased cellular metabolism caused by increases in thyroxine output
Conduction
the transfer of heat from one molecule to another in direct contact
Constant fever
a state in which the body temperature fluctuates minimally but always remains above normal
Convection
the dispersion of heat by air currents
Core temperature
the temperature of the deep tissues of the body (e.g., thorax, abdominal cavity); relatively constant at 37°C (98.6°F)
Costal (thoracic) breathing
use of the external intercostal muscles and other accessory muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscles
Diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing
contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, observed by the movement of the abdomen, which occurs as a result of the diaphragm's contraction and downward movement
Diastolic pressure
the pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart are at rest
Dysrhythmia
a pulse with an irregular rhythm
Elasticity of the arterial wall
pliability or expansibility of the vessels
Eupnea
normal, quiet breathing
Exhalation
(expiration) the movement of gases from the lungs to the atmosphere
Expiration
See Exhalation
External respiration
the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the lungs and the pulmonary blood
Febrile
pertaining to a fever; feverish
Fever
elevated body temperature
Fever spike
a temperature that rises to fever level rapidly following a normal temperature and then returns to normal within a few hours
Heat balance
the state a person is in when the amount of heat produced by the body exactly equals the amount of heat lost
Hematocrit
the proportion of red blood cells (erythrocytes) to the total blood volume
Hyperpyrexia
see Hyperthermia
Hypertension
an abnormally high blood pressure; over 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic
Hyperthermia
an extremely high body temperature (e.g., 41 degrees C [105.8 degrees F])
Hyperventilation
very deep, rapid respirations
Hypotension
an abnormally low blood pressure; less than 100 mm Hg systolic in an adult
Hypothalamic integrator
the center in the brain that controls the core temperature; located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus
Hypoventilation
very shallow respirations
Inhalation
the act of breathing in; the intake of air or other substances into the lungs
Insensible water loss
continuous and unnoticed water loss
Inspiration
See Inhalation
Intermittent fever
a body temperature that alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temperatures
Internal respiration
the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and the cells of the body tissues
Korotkoff's sounds
a series of five sounds produced by blood within the artery with each ventricular contraction
Meniscus
the crescent-shaped upper surface of a column of fluid
Orthostatic hypotension
decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing positions
Peripheral pulse
a pulse located in the periphery of the body (eg, foot, wrist)
Point of maximal impulse
(PMI) the point where the apex of the heart touches the anterior chest wall
Polypnea
abnormally fast respirations
Pulse
the wave of blood within an artery that is created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
Pulse deficit
the difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse
Pulse oximeter
a noninvasive device that measures the arterial blood oxygen saturation by means of a sensor attached to the finger
Pulse pressure
the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure
Pulse rhythm
the pattern of the beats and intervals between the beats
Pulse volume
the strength or amplitude of the pulse, the force of blood exerted with each heart beat
Pyrexia
a body temperature above the normal range, fever
Radiation
the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without contact between the two objects
Relapsing fever
the occurrence short febrile periods of a few days interspersed with periods of 1 or 2 days of normal temperature
Remittent fever
the occurrence of a wide range of temperature fluctuations (more than 2 degrees C [3.6 degrees F]) over the 24-hour period, all of which are above normal
Respiration
the act of breathing; transport of oxygen from the atmosphere to the body cells and transport of carbon dioxide from the cells to the atmosphere
Respiratory character
see Respiratory quality
Respiratory quality
refers to those aspects of breathing that are different from normal, effortless breathing, includes the amount of effort exerted to breathe and the sounds produced by breathing
Respiratory rhythm
refers to the regularity of the expirations and the inspirations
Surface temperature
the temperature of the skin, the subcutaneous
Systolic pressure
the pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart contract
Tachycardia
an abnormally rapid pulse rate, greater than 100 beats per minute
Tachypnea
abnormally fast respirations, usually more than 24 respirations per minute
Tidal volume
the volume of air that is normally inhaled and exhaled
Vaporization
continuous evaporation of moisture from the respiratory tract and from the mucosa of the mouth and from the skin
Ventilation
the movement of air in and out of the lungs; the process of inhalation and exhalation
Viscous
thick, sticky
Vital signs
measurements of physiological functioning, specifically body temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure; may include pain and pulse oximetry
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