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Jacob Burckhardt
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19 th century Swiss historian who famously described the Renaissance as the "prototype of the modern world"
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terms list

Jacob Burckhardt
19 th century Swiss historian who famously described the Renaissance as the "prototype of the modern world"
"Rebirth"; transition from medieval to modern times
Independent northern Italian states
Old rich - nobles and merchants who ruled cities (Florence)
Popolo Grosso
New rich - (fat people) merchant class, capitalists and bankers who challenged the old rich for political power in Florence
Popolo Minuto
"Little people" - people who had no wealth
The Ciompi Revolt
Great uprising of the poor (1378)
Cosimo de' Medici
Florentine banker & statesman who controlled city from behind scene
A council of six and later eight members who controlled the city
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Sole purpose to maintain law and order in Italian city-states
Military brokers who used mercenary armies to fight for city-states
Despots who ruled Milan in 1450
The scholarly study of Greek & Latin classics and the ancient Church Fathers, in hopes of reviving worthy ancient values
Studia Humanitatis
Liberal arts study (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, philosophy)—to celebrate the dignity of humankind & prepare for life of virtuous action
Francesco Petrarch
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. Introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura"
Dante Alighieri
An Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell, purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Giovanni Boccaccio
Wrote "The Decameron", the best prose of the Renaissance, about people fleeding Florence during the black plague
Baldassare Castiglione
"The Book of The Courtier". Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
Christine de Pisan
Europe's first feminist, she was one of the most versatile and prolific French writers. Wrote "The City of Ladies;" Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society.
Florentine Academy
Not a formal school, but gathering of influential Florentine humanists devoted to reviving Plato & the Neoplatonists. The Academy evolved under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici
Flattering view of human reason as part of the ideal (eternal) world, versus the real (perishable) world; human freedom
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man". A positivist Platonic view of human potential.
Lorenzo Valla
"Elegances of the Latin Language." Reinterpret "Donation of Constantine," which is a forgery. Father of historical criticism.
Civic Humanism
The individual is responsible for applying his knowledge to promote individual virtue and public service
Leonardo Bruni
Florentine who first gave the name humanitas, or "humanity", to the learning that resulted from such scholarly pursuits as Studia Humanitatis; student of Manuel Chrysoloras
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
Linear perspective
Using a vanishing point to create the illusion of depth
Father of Renaissance painting during the Early Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci
One of the most famouse artists and scientists of the Renaissance- Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Italian painter and sculpter famous for the "David" and most of all, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Tintorreto and El Greco are mannerism's supreme representatives.
Treaty of Lodi
Treaty that brought Naples and Milan, long traditional enemies, into alliance with Florence. These three stood together for decades against Venice and the Papal States, to create an internal balance of power. When a foreign enemy threatened Italy, the 5 formed a united front.
Ludovico il Moro
Milanese despot who essentially invited the French back into Naples, reviving French dynastic claims
Charles VIII
French King who responded to Ludovico's call for help and invaded Italy. Conquered Florence, Papal States, Naples.
Alexander VI
Borgia pope; considered the most corrupt pope who ever sat on the papal throne; Makes corrupt alliance with Louis XII (French King) to gain land for his son Casare Borgia (Romagna)
Cesare Borgia
Son of Pope Alexander VI, used ruthless measures to carve new state in Italy, new Italian ruler; became hero of Machiavelli's The Prince.
Julius II
Known as the "warrior pope", more involved in war and politics. Led a very secular papacy.
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over church council and the collection of annates in France in exchange for the right of the French king to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Niccolò Machiavelli
Italian writer who wrote "The Prince"; he was a political philosopher and statesman whose experiences with violent politics of the time influenced his opinions about how governments should rule
Assembly of nobles, clergy, and town officials in medieval Spain; also, the parliament of modern Spain.
Spanish royal officials
Gabelle, alcabala, taille
National taxes in Spain and France
Louis XI
Successor of King Charles VII, permanently imposed the taille, an annual tax on property. He secured an annual source of income for the crown and expanded French territory. Historians give him credit for establishing the national state.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Marriage uniting Aragon and Castile. Together carried out Reconquista and Inquisition of Spain.
Tomás de Torquemada
General of the Inquisition; Isabella's confessor, was a key national agency established in 1479 to monitor the activity of converted Jews (conversos) and Muslims (morisco) in Spain
Court of the Star Chamber
Created w/ the sanction of Parliament in 1487, this court was intended to end the perversion of English justice by powerful nobles who used intimidation and bribery to win favorable verdicts in court cases. This court had the king's councilors as judges, and they were not moved by those tactics.
Golden Bull
Stated that the seven main princes of the Holy Roman Empire elected the emperor, and all princes had autonomy. It was issued by Charles IV in 1356 and stated the procedure for choosing and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire: the emperor had to be elected by the Seven Princes and approved by the Pope.
Brothers of the Common Life
an influential lay religious movement that began in the Netherlands and permitted men and women to live a shared religious life without making formal vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. This group helped stimulate humanism in northern Europe
Northern humanism
Sought to reconcile humanism with Christianity.
Johann Gutenberg
Invented printing with movable type in the mid 15th century. Made it possible to spread the humanistic literature to the rest of Europe with great speed. Lead to the publishing of the Bible in Mainz, Germany.
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe. He wrote The Praise of Folly, translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
Thomas More
A close friend of Erasmus and best-known English humanist who wrote a conservative criticism of contemporary society called Utopia. Became one of Henry VIII most trusted diplomats, but his repudiation of the Act of Supremacy (which made the king of England head of the English church in place of the pope) and his refusal to recognize the king's marriage to Anne Boleyn led to his execution.
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Bartholomew Dias
An early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to the East Indies
Amerigo Vespucci
The italian sailor and cartographer who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of America as a new continent. America is named after him.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who reached the Philippines and circumnavigated the world
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the new World.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas
Bartolomé de Las Casas
A Dominican friar who strongly discouraged enslaving Native Americans for the workforce, and recomended using African slaves instead. By the end of his lifetime he realized that that didn't make a difference, they were being treated the same.
Large land estates owned by the peninsulares (people born in Spain) and creoles (people of Spanish descent born in America) used forced labor for mining, farming and ranching
A formal grant of the right to the labor of a specific number of Indians
Required adult male Indians to devote a certain number of days of labor annually to Spanish economic enterprises
Debt Peonage
Indian laborers required to purchase goods from the landowner to who they were forever indebted

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