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chitons, dorsal
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(Mollusca, Polyplacophora) --- are marine animals with oval shapes and shells divided into eight --- plates (the body itself, however, is unsegmented).
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terms list

chitons, dorsal
(Mollusca, Polyplacophora) --- are marine animals with oval shapes and shells divided into eight --- plates (the body itself, however, is unsegmented).
(Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Chitons are grazers that use --- to cut and ingest algae.
The largest of the molluscan classes ---has more than 40,000 living species.
The most distinctive characteristic of the gastropods is a process known as ---.
(Mollusca, Gastropoda) During embryonic development, an asymmetrical muscle forms, and contraction of the muscle and uneven growth causes the visceral mass to rotate up to 180 degrees, so that the anus and mantle cavity are placed above the head in the adult. This is called ---.
(Mollusca, Gastropoda) The shell is often conical, but --- and limpets have somewhat flattened shells.
Several gastropod groups are predators, and the --- is modified for boring holes in the shells of other mollusks or for tearing apart tough animal tissue.
In the --- snails, the teeth of the radula form separate poison darts, which penetrate prey, including fishes.
gills, respiratory
(Mollusca, Gastropoda) Terrestrial snails lack the --- typical of most aquatic gastropods, and instead the lining of the mantle cavity functions as a lung, exchanging --- gases with the air.
embryonic, anus
(Mollusca, Gastropoda) Because of torsion (twisting of the visceral mass) during --- development, the digestive tract is coiled and the --- is near the mouth at the head end of the animal.
(Mollusca, Gastropoda) After torsion, some of the organs that were --- are reduced in size or are lost on one side of the body.
(Mollusca, Gastropoda) Torsion should not be confused with the formation of a --- shell, which is an independent developmental process.
mid-dorsal, adductor
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) The two parts of the shell are hinged at the --- - --- line, and the powerful --- muscles draw the two halves tightly together to protect the soft-bodied animal.
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) When the shell is open, the bivalve may extend its hatchet shaped --- for digging or anchoring.
siphon, palps
(Clam digestion) Food particles suspended in water that enters through the incurrent --- are collected by the gills and passed via cilia and elongated flaps called --- to the mouth.
gills, gas
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) The mantle cavity of a bivalve contains --- that are used for feeding as well as --- exchange.
mucus, cilia
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) Most bivalves are suspension-feeders. They trap fine food particles in --- that coats the gills, and --- then convey the particles to the mouth.
incurrent, excurrent
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) Water flows into the mantle cavity through an --- siphon, passes over the gills, and then exits the mantle cavity through an --- siphon.
radula, head
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) Bivalves have no ---, and no distinct ---.
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) Being suspension feeders, most bivalves lead rather --- lives.
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) Sessile --- secrete strong threads that tether them to rocks, docks, boats, and the shells of other animals.
clams, anchor
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) --- can pull themselves into the sand or mud, using the muscular foot as an ---.
(Mollusca, Bivalvia) In addition to digging, --- can skitter along the seafloor by flapping their shells.
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) Cephalopods are built for speed, a design that fits their --- diet.
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) --- and octopuses use beaklike jaws to bite their prey; they then inject poison to immobilize the victim.
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) A mantle covers the visceral mass, but the shell is reduced and internal (---) or missing altogether (many octopuses) .
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) One small group of shelled cephalopods, the chambered ---, survives today.
excurrent siphon, anteriorly
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) A squid darts about, usually backward, by drawing water into its mantle cavity and then firing a jet stream of water through the --- --- that points ---.
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) The squid steers by pointing the --- in different directions.
siphon, tentacles
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) Evolutionists say that the foot of the cephalopod has become modified into the muscular --- and parts of the --- and head.
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) Giant --- are the largest of all invertebrates.
squids, octopuses
(Mollusca, Cephalopoda) Rather than swimming as --- do in the open seas, most --- live on the seafloor, where they creep and scurry about in search of crabs and other food.
Cephalopods, brain
--- are the only mollusks with a closed circulatory system. They also have a well-developed nervous system with a complex ---.
Evolutionists say that the ancestors of octopuses and squids were probably shelled mollusks that took up a --- lifestyle, the loss of the shell occurring later.
ammonites, Cretacious
Evolutionists say that shelled cephalopods called ---, were the dominant invertebrate predators of the seas for millions of years until their disappearance during the mass extinctions at the end of the --- period.

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