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Made up of plasma & formed elements
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Made up of plasma & formed elements
Complex transport medium that performs vital pickup & delivery service for the body
Keystone of body's heat-regulating mechanism
Young adult female has approximately how many liters of blood?
4-5 liters
Young adult male has approximately how many liters of blood?
5-6 liters
Blood volume varies according to
Age, Body Type, Sex, and Method of Measurement
Another name for red blood cells (RBC's)
Mature red blood cells or erythrocytes
Have no nucleus & shaped like tiny biconcave disks; do not contain ribosomes, mitochondria and other organelle typical of most body cells; primary component is hemoglobin; most numerous of the formed elements
Critical role of red blood cells in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide depend on
Carbonic Anhydrase
Enzyme in RBC's that catalyzes a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
Carbonis Acid
Dissociates and generates bicarbonate ions, which diffuse out of the RBC and serve to transport carbon dioxide in the blood plasma
Within each RBC there are approximately how many molecules of hemoglobin?
200-300 million molecules
Made up of 4 globin chains, with each attached to a heme molecule
Hemoglobin is able to unite with 4 oxygen molecules to form
This allows RBC's to transport oxygen where it is needed
Who has the greater amount of hemoglobin males or females?
A decrease in number or volume of functional RBC's in a given unit of whole blood
Entire process of RBC formation
RBC formation begins where?
In the red bone marrow
RBC formation begins in the red bone marrow as what?
Hematopoietic stem cells
4 days or 96 hours
Entire maturation of RBC's
Erythrocytes/red blood cells
Created and destroyed at approximately 100 million per minute in an adult
Homeostatic mechanisms
Operate to balance the number of cells formed against the number of cells destroyed
105-120 days
Life span of a circulating RBC averages
Mecrophage cells phagocytes
The aged, abnormal or fragmented erythrocytes
Amino acids, iron, and bilirobin
When hemoglobin is broken down this is released
Another name for white blood cells
Granulocytes (WBC with cytoplasmic granules) include what 3 leukocytes that have granules in cytoplasm
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
Make up approximately 65% of total WBC count in a normal blood sample
Highly mobile & very active phagocytic cells
WBC capable of diapedisis
WBC whose cytoplasmic granules contain lysosomes
Account for 2-5% of circulating WBC's
WBC numerous in lining of respiratory & digestive tracts
WBC with weak phagocytes
WBC's capable of ingesting inflammatory chemical and proteins associated with antigen-antibody reaction complexes
WBC that provides protection against infections caused by parasitic worms & allergic reaction
Accounts for only 0.5-1% of circulating WBC's
WBC motile & capable of diapedisis
WBC's whose cytoplasmic granules contain histamine and heparin
There are 2 types of granulocytes (WBC's without cytoplasmic granules)
Lymphocytes, and Monocytes
Smallest of the WBC's
2nd most numerous WBC
Account for approximately 25% of circulating WBC's
T - Lymphocytes
This lymphocyte directly attacks an infected or cancerous cell
B - Lymphocytes
These lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens
Largest leukocytes
WBC mobile and highly phagocytic cells
1 mm3 of normal blood usually contains what amount of leukocytes
5000-9000 leukocytes
Why do WBC numbers have clinical significance?
Because they change with certain abnormal conditions
Where do granular and agranular leukocytes mature from?
The undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell
What originates in red bone marrow?
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, A few lymphocytes & monocytes
Where do most lymphocytes and monocytes develop from?
Hematopoietic stem cells in lymphatic tissue
In circulating blood, platelets are small, pale bodies that appear as what?
Irregular spindles or oval disks
3 important properties of platelets
Agglutination, Adhesiveness, and Aggregation
What is the average platelet count of an adult?
250,000/mm3 of blood
What is the normal range for platelets?
150,000-400,000/mm3 of blood
Plays an important role in hemostasis & blood coagulation
Refers to stoppage of blood flow; however, if injury is extensive, the blood clotting mechanism is activated to assist
1-5 seconds
How long after injury to vessel wall, platelets adhere to damage endothelial lining and to each other, forming a platelet plug
Temporary plated plug
An important step in hemostasis
Normal platelets (positive charge)
Adhere to damaged capillary wall and underlying collagen fibers, which both have a negative charge
"Sticky platelets"
Form physical plug and secrete several chemicals included in the coagulation process
Where & how are platelets formed?
In red bone marrow, lungs & spleen by fragmentation of megakaryocytes
Formation and lifespan of platelets
7-10 days
How many ABO groups are there?
How is ABO blood groups named?
According to antigens present on RBC membranes
4 types of ABO groups
A-antigen A on RBC, B-antigen B on RBC, AB-antigen A&B on RBC, and O-no antigens on RBC
Type O
universal donor
Type AB
universal recipient
Rh+ blood
Means Rh antigen is present on the RBC's
Means Rh is not present on the RBC's
What antibodies are not normally present in blood?
Anti Rh antibodies
What causes anti Rh antibodies?
Rh-blood comes in contact with Rh+ blood
Liquid part of blood; clear, straw-colored fluid
This part of human blood is made up of 90% water and 10% solutes
What % of plasma solute is protein?
6-8% protein
3 main compounds of plasma solutes
Albumins, Globulins, and Fibrinogen
Help maintain osmotic balance of the blood
Essential component of the immunity mechanism
Key role in blood clotting
Plasma proteins
Have an essential role in maintaining normal blood circulation
Blood clotting or coagulation
To stop bleeding and prevent loss of vital body fluid in a swift & sure method
Classic theory of coagulation
4 components critical for coagulation: prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin
Current explanation of coagulation stage I
Production of thromboplastin activator by either: chemicals released from damaged tissues (extrinsic pathway); chemicals present in the blood (intrinsic pathway)
Current explanation of coagulation stage II
Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
Current explanation of coagulation stage III
Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and production of fibrin clot
Factor that opposes clotting
Perfectly smooth surface of the normal endothelial lining of blood vessels does not allow platelets to adhere.
Substances in the blood that oppose or inactivate thrombin; prevent thrombin from converting fibrinogen to fibrin (e.g., Heparin).
Conditions that hasten clotting
A rough spot in the endothelium and abnormally slow blood flow
Physiological mechanism that dissolves
Enzyme in the blood that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fibrin, causing it to dissolve
Aid clotting dissolution
Fibrinolysis, Fibrinolysin, Additional factors (e.g. Substances that activate profibrinolysin)
Blood plasma
Transports substances, including heat, around the body, linking all body tissues together
Blood plasma transports
This allows substances can be transported between almost any two points in the body.
Blood tissue
Contains formed elements - blood cells and platelets
"RBC's" Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
Assist in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
"WBC's" White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
Assist in the defense mechanism of the whole body.
Prevent loss of fluid that constitutes the internal environment.
No organ or system of the body can maintain proper levels of nutrients, gases, or water without direct or indirect help from what?
Useless unless it continues to transport, defend, and maintain balance.

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