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Body mass index is a measure used to determine childhood and adult overweight and obesity.
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Body mass index is a measure used to determine childhood and adult overweight and obesity.
Calculating BMI
dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of height in meters.
Are all sugars the same? Explain.
No Glucose- Breads, Pasta Lactose-Milk, Cheese, Yogurt Sucrose (50% glucose 50% fructose)-table sugar Fructose- fruits, honey, makes foods sweet
Are all calories the same?
Yes. Calories from sugary foods become fat which forms around your body. You could eat the same amount of calories, but have two different. They come from different sources.
How do food producers use packaging as a marketing tool, to sell more of their products?
Make it appealing, commercials Market it by low fat, organic, and use words like agave.
Why is it important to be able to read and understand and interoperate nutritional information?
It is important because you need to be eating less sugar and be conscious of what you are putting in your body.
Key Points for the Sugar Film
We are eating too much sugar Be aware of 'hidden' sugars Many foods commonly perceived as 'healthy' are high in added sugar Reduce added sugars, but don't remove natural sugars Sugar in it's natural form in fruit, vegetables and dairy is wonderful for health Sugar is part of a bigger nutritional picture
Foods high in Sugar
pop, flavored drinks, energy drinks, juice, sweet desserts, cookies, candy,
Other words for sugar
fructose, honey, lactose, corn syrup, sucrose
Problems when limiting sugar
Too many unhealthy choices Portion sizes are too big We drink too many of our calories People are uneducated about how to eat, what to eat and how much to eat.
A unit used to measure the amount of energy contained in foods Your body needs a certain amount of energy from: a) fat 9 calories per gram b) protein 4 calories per gram c) Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram Your body burns (metabolizes) these 3 nutrients to produce ENERGY which is measured in calories
Types of diets
Slimfast, Jenny Craig, Nutri-system, Atkins, South Beach, Beverly Hills Diet
Why FAD diets don't work
its not a lifestyle and won't maintain your weight loss
Losing Weight
Eating less calories then you burn
Gaining Weight
Eating more calories then you burn
Maintaining Weight
Eating same calories then you burn
Calorie intake depends on...
genetics, gender, amount of exercise
Most diets have too few _______ and your metabolism slows down
Beware of diet ads that...
promise quick weight loss unrealistic claims digital before and after photos small print that you need a magnifying glass to read it.
1 pound=______ calories
3500 calories
Safest rate to lose weight
1-2 lbs. per week
*Women should never go below ______ calories/day *Men should never go below _______ calories/day
*Women should never go below 1200 calories/day *Men should never go below 1500 calories/day
When you cut calories below 1200/1500
Your body goes into starvation mode and you have slowed metabolism, hunger pains, and fat cells do not release fat Once you start eating normally your body will make new fat cells before filling the old fat cells often resulting in becoming even more overweight than when you started.
Why is eating breakfast important?
With no food in your stomach, your body thinks it's starving, and your metabolism slows down Your brain needs nutrients to be alert, otherwise you'll feel tired and can't concentrate! Your body and brain need food in the morning for energy!!
Don't go longer than ____ hours since you last ate
18 hours
Girls' calories should be between _______
1200 - 2800 it should not go below 1200.
Boys' calories should be between ________
1500 - 3800 it should not go below 1500
Dropping Calories
Dropping calories has a lot to do with better food choices: You don't have to give up all good tasting foods. It's all about choices and reading your food labels to know what you're eating.
6 essential nutrients
Fat Protein Carbohydrate Vitamins Minerals Water
Good fats
Unsaturated fats: Can help lower cholesterol levels and reduce your risk of heart disease. Examples- vegetable oils, omega-3s found in fatty fish (salmon), nuts
Bad fats
Saturated fats and trans fatty acids: Can raise cholesterol levels, clog arteries and increase the risk for heart disease Examples: animal products including dairy and eggs, vegetable fats like coconut & palm oil
Why do we need fat?
We need fat for energy + cushion + insulation
Good Fats are ....
Omegas + unsaturated
The bad fats are ....
Trans fat + saturated They're found in many dairy and animal products + tropical oils. It's "solid" at room temp.
What word do you look for when your looking for trans fats in food labels?
hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated (added to make foods solid)
Foods high in fat are....
-fast food -cured pork -butter -red meat + cheese -mayo / dressing -almost anything w/ "cream"
measured via blood test
"lousy"-clogs arteries
"healthy" carries excess to liver
Why is high cholesterol bad?
High cholesterol is bad because it clogs arteries and leads to heart attacks, and strokes. (HDL is good cholesterol.) genetic
What is cholesterol found in?
meat, dairy, and eggs
Maximum grams of cholesterol someone should eat
300 mg your liver makes all the cholesterol you don't need to eat
4 cal. per gram There are simple and complex carbs.
Simple Carbs
table sugar bad for you (empty calories) make you gain weight, get diabetes and then blood sugar levels crash and you feel tired and crave more sugar Excess sugar is stored as fat!
Complex sugars
The good carbs are complex
Complex sugars example
whole wheat fruits veggies oats vitamins minerals fiber
Why should you choose whole wheat flour products?
Refined white flour is bleached and striped of vitamins and minerals
Enriched flour
most of the natural vitamins and minerals have been extracted. This is done in order to give bread a finer texture and increase shelf life. Enriched flour is flour with specific nutrients returned to it that have been lost while being prepared. These restored nutrients include iron and B vitamins (folic acid, riboflavin, niacin, and thiamine). Calcium may also be supplemented.
Carbs and Glucose
All carbs turn into glucose but the faster they enter the blood the worse it is and the faster they spike our blood glucose levels.
Foods that turn into glucose faster
processed foods, chopped, sliced, mashed, juiced
Foods that turn into glucose slower
fats, proteins, fiber, whole fruits and veggies
Type 1 diabetes
the pancreas, the organ that secretes insulin, is destroyed, that's why people with type 1 diabetes always need insulin, either injected or through an insulin pump.
Type 2 diabetes
more common primarily a complicated medical condition called 'insulin resistance.' In the early stages of type 2 diabetes, there's plenty of insulin around, it just doesn't work well. To treat type 2 diabetes, a healthy diet and plenty of exercise must be added to the person's lifestyle.
Warning signs of diabetes type 1
*can come on suddenly but usually during childhood-may be hereditary* Excessive thirst Frequent urination Extremely tired Rapid weight loss High amounts of sugar in blood and urine
Warning signs of diabetes type 2
*occur more gradually-most common and usually adult onset related to obesity* Blurred vision Tingling, numbness in legs, feet, or fingers Frequent skin infections, slow healing of cuts and bruises Drowsiness, Any of type 1 symptoms
Cure for diabetes
There is no cure at this point however.... Type 2 can be controlled with diet/nutrition, weight management and exercise. Those with diabetes have an increased risk-heart disease and stroke
Protein ____ cal. per gram
Protein is found where in the cell?
Proteins are in the outer and inner membranes of every cell
Protein is essential for?
building muscle, building and repairing tissue, growth, and energy.
How much amino acids does your body need to function properly?
20 There are 9 essential amino acids your body cant make so you must eat them
What happens if you don't eat a lot of protein?
cause a weakening of tissues, stunt growth, hair is thin, nails are thin, muscles are weak, and you can be anemic(low red blood cell count), and tired all the time.
*True or False:* Extra protein from foods or use of protein supplements will help increase strength.
False Protein is made of small building units called amino acids. Extra amounts of amino acids will not build muscle strength. If more protein is provided to the body than needed, the extra will be used as energy, excreted, or stored as fat.
What happens if you eat to much protein?
Too much protein can cause liver and kidney damage (kidney stones!) because the body can't store protein.
Is not considered a drug-it's classified as "food substance" It's a powdered protein (an amino acid) that's naturally found in the body. It's also in meat, milk, and fish 1 spoonful = 4-5 lbs. of meat (20 Quarter Pounders patties) People take Creatine to help them work out harder (more stamina) and recover faster.
Dangers of Creatine
1. Dehydration - you can get muscle cramps, pulls, tears. You need to drinkat least 1 gallon of water a day. 2. Kidney and liver damage -they have to get rid of extra creatine 3. Kidney stones! 4. BIGGEST DANGER: This supplement hasn't been around long enough to have long-term effects known!!!
foods high in protein are....
-Beef jerky snack bag - 10 -1/2 c. sunflower seeds only - 14 -2 eggs - 12 -1/2 c. refried beans - 16 -1/2 c. peanuts - 16 -1 chicken breast - 24 -1/2 c. tuna fish - 30
How much protein do you need to eat?
A 150 lb. person needs 54 gr. of protein per day- they can get that from 2 T. of peanut butter, 2 tacos with cheese and 1 chicken breast...
need it for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contraction table salt, soy sauce, vegetables
part of molecule found in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body red meat, fish, poultry, legumes
needed for proper fluid balance, nerve transmission and muscle contraction Meas, milk, fruits and vegetable
Healthy bones and teeth, helps muscle contract and relax, nerve function milk, greens, legumes, tofu
healthy bones and teeth, found in every cells Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk
found in bones, needed for making protein, muscle contraction, nerve transmission nuts and seeds, legumes, leafy greens, chocolate
found in protein molecules occurs in food as part as proteins, meat, poultry, eggs, milk
Vitamin A
Helps you see, protects you from infecting, helps growth and development liver, fish, milk, cheese
Vitamin B
Helps w/ energy production, cell production, nerve functions whole grain, enriched grains, liver, pork
Vitamin C
Prevent cell damage, reduce risk of cancer and heart disease, helps heal wounds citrus fruits, mango, kiwi, papaya
Vitamin D
Increase amount of Calcium and phosphorus your body absorbs, protects you form infections Milk, fish, eggs, organ meat, fish liver oils
Vitamin E
Helps maintain healthy immune system, acts as antioxidant vegetable oils, avocados, leafy greens, wheat germ
Vitamin K
Makes protein that causes our blood to colt when you bleed, makes protein for blood, kidney, bones broccoli, soybeans, kale, collards, spinach
Produce and maintain DNA and cells, Make red blood cells (prevent anemia) Asparagus, cooked spinach, beets, bread
4 of the vitamins are fat soluble while the rest are water soluble. What does this mean?
There are 2 groups. Fat soluble and Water soluble, Water soluble are easily absorbed into the body. If you consume more than you need they are excreted from the body. Fat solubles, vitamins A,D,E, and K, and require bile acids to be absorbed. You need to restock on water soluble but not fat solubles. B and C are water solubles.
What are antioxidants and what do they do for the body? What foods have a high antioxidant content?
Antioxidants are compounds found in food that stops or delays damage to cells. some foods include goji berries, pecans, dark chocolate
why is it best to get your vitamins and minerals from food sources rather than supplements?
food has more beneficial nutrients than supplements.
What are the best minerals and vitamins for brain function given that many of you strive to do well in school? What foods should you be eating more of with this in mind?
Water soluble B complex minerals calcium zinc magnesium
What are omega 3 fatty acids? What foods are they in? How do they help you?
They lower your triglycerides (lower risk for heart disease) Poly saturated fats Your body doesn't make them so they are essential to eat.
Condition where there is an abnormally low number of red blood cells circulating in the body
You should eat ___ mg of iron
Causes of Anemia
diet low in iron diet low in minerals Internal Bleeding Menstrual Cycle
Symptoms of Anemia
Often, no symptoms Paleness Feeling tired Unusual shortness of breath during exercise Fast heartbeat Cold hands and feet Brittle nails Headaches
How much water should you drink?
64 oz. a day
Why should you drink water?
-flushes out fat !! -is essential for almost all body functions -aids in digestion
pop, coffee, some teas make you lose valuable water
Simple Rules of Nutrition
Limit your refined sugars Go with natural choices Say "no" to sodas and diet drinks Enjoy in moderation If you need a Chemistry degree to understand the food label then best to not eat it.
Protein Size
Pasta- clenched fist Meat- size of your palm
Eating disorders
Anorexia and bulimia both involve a obsession on being thin
Average time to overcome an eating disorder
7 years
Eating disorder Signs
Resistance to maintaining healthy body weight An obsession with being thin An intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though may be underweight Distorted perception of their body shape and size.
Average women size
5'4" 140lbs
Dangers from eating disorders:
-low potassium - can stop your heart -can starve to death -osteoporosis - bone disease -dental problems -liver damage -diabetes (binge / purge ) -intestine problems from vomiting -internal bleeding
It's not about food! It's about:
fears control perfectionism sexuality pressures self esteem abuse attention family dysfunction
Types of exercise
Aerobic (with oxygen) and Cardiovascular Anaerobic (without oxygen)/Strength Training Stretching/Flexibility/Mobility Balance
How much exercise should you be getting?
Children and Adolescents/Teens: 60 minutes daily Adults: 2 hours and 30 minutes a week and muscle strengthening activities 2 or more times a week
Benefits of Exercise
Increases energy level and alertness Improves mood Promotes better sleep Increases brain functioning Combats health conditions and diseases Controls weight Increases test performance Combats depression Decreases the effects of stress and anxiety Raises self confidence Boosts immune system
Components of Fitness
Muscular strength Muscular endurance Cardiorespiratory endurance Flexibility Body Composition
Muscular Strength
The amount of force a muscle can apply in a given contraction. Example: 1 RM (repetition max) for Squat
Muscular Endurance
The ability of the muscles to work over a period of time. Example: Sit up test Example: Swimming
Cardiovascular Endurance
The most important of the components of fitness The ability of you heart, blood vessels and lungs to deliver oxygen and nutrients to your cells (muscles). As your cardiorespiratory increases your resting heart rate decreases Example: Pacer test, 5km jog, lap swimming
The ability of the joints to move through their full range of motion. Example: Full squat Example: Sit and reach Being flexible significantly reduces the chance of experiencing occasional and chronic back pain. (Human Kinetics)
Body Composition
Ratio of lean body tissue (muscle and bone) to fat tissue. Excessive body fat is linked to many diseases including heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer. Can usually be controlled with a good diet/nutrition and exercise
Skills developed by Fitness
Balance Coordination Agility Power Speed Reaction time
FITT Principle
The FITT Principle should be used as a guide when creating a workout to improve or maintain fitness. F - Frequency: How often? I - Intensity: How hard? T - Time: Length of workout T - Type: What kind of exercise?
FITT Principle example
to maintain- less to improve- more
Average Resting Heart Rate
60 - 70 BPM
Elements That Raise Resting Heart Rate
1. Caffeine 2. Nicotine 3. Asthma inhalers 4. Stress and anxiety 5. Stimulants
Anatomy of a Workout
Warm-up-- 5 to 10 minutes (work muscles at a moderate pace to generate blood flow through the body. Use dynamic stretches) Activity-- 20 to 40 minutes (Exercise at a pace that keeps your heart rate in your target heart rate zone) Cool Down-- 5 to 10 minutes (Static stretching) **Static stretching should only be done at the completion of a workout.
What is a cholesterol?
Waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all cells of the body
What is HDL?
Good cholesterol
What is LDL?
Bad cholesterol
Why are minerals important to consume:
They give you specific energy and basic body function, (fish oil, calcium, iron, omega 3)
Give an example of one mineral and how it functions:
Calcium: strengthens bones, in dairy products Iron: red blood cells, in meat Magnesium: Lowers high blood pressure, in leafy greens, avocado Potassium: Boots nervous system, avocado, milk, green vegetables, banana Omega 3: Helps the brain prevent disease, in fish
What are complex carbohydrates:
Long chains of sugar used as energy.
What is the problem w/ FAD diets?
Not trust worthy, not sustainable, not healthy unless you make it a life style.
What does BMI measure?
Body fat based on weight and height
What is the main function of protein? What are the best sources?
Protein is essential for building muscles. You can get it from poultry, beans, nuts, and dair
How many calories do you need to burn to lose 1 pound?
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 (usually genetic) is when your body can't produce insulin and type 2 (poor diet) is where they have insulin, but it doesn't work.
What is the definition of a calorie?
Unit of energy. Way of describing how much energy your body could get from eating or drinking it.
What are the benefits of drinking water?
Increases Energy & Relieves Fatigue Promotes Weight Loss Flushes Out Toxins Improves Skin Complexion Maintains Regularity Boosts Immune System Natural Headache Remedy Prevents Cramps & Sprains
Which 2 minerals help with fluid balance?
Sodium and potassium
List 3 symptoms of diabetes?
- the need to urinate frequently. - increased thirst & fluid intake. - increased appetite. -Fatigue, slow healing
What happens to your body when you don't have enough food in your stomach?
Body goes into starvation mode and metabolism slows down.
List 2 reasons why it is important to eat breakfast.
You won't have enough energy to get through the day
What are trans fats? What are saturated fats?
Trans fat =hydrogenated fats and found in junk food. Saturated fats= found in animals Both of them are not good for you
What are 3 reasons people are becoming more obese.
Energy balance, genes and genetics, aggressive food marketing, junk food, lack of exercise.
What foods are typically high in vitamins and minerals?
Leafy green vegetables, fish, meat
Which Vitamins and minerals help with brain and nerve function?
Water soluble B complex vitamins, calcium, zinc
what is the first thing you do when you do a workout
do a warmup
Best sources of vitamin c
citrus foods, green leafy vegetables
Best sources of vitamin d-
How much calories are in one pound
how many calories in 10 grams of fat
what type of carbohydrates is slow releasing?
What is a safe weight to lose per week?
1 to 2 pounds per week
What type of cholesterol is good for you?
What is the minimum amount of calories per day should you consume?
1200/ 1500
Which is these is not a symptom of diabetes
flushed face
_____ slows down when you don't have food in your stomach
When you divide by the square of height you get?
How many years does it take overcome an eating disorder?
7 years
Why are people becoming obese?
portion size, sugary foods
Why are processed and chopped foods unhealthy?
fiber and other important vitamins minerals are removed
What minerals help with fluid balance?
What vitamin helps with brain and nerve function
vitamin b
What type of foods are high in vitamins and minerals?
dark leafy green vegetables
What happened when someone increase exercise without increasing calorie intake?
Weight loss
What are some telltale signs of a fad diets?
Eliminate food groups, special food must be purchased
What does f stand for in FITT?
What is not a components of fitness?
What is the recommended amount of exercise per week?
30 min 5 times a week
What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic?
with and without oxygen, plyometric.
What is the portions size of protein
What are some symptoms of bulimia?
binge eating, obsession being this, over exercise
Where is the pressure to be thin coming from?
tv, advertising, magazines.

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