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preserved remains of animal or plant
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terms list

preserved remains of animal or plant
wearing away earth materials by water, wind, or ice
the part of a hill or mountain that is at an angle
a narrow chasm with steep cliff walls, cut into the earth by running water; a gorge
the process by which eroded earth materials settle out in another place
the streams that make up the beginnings of a river
river mouth
the place where the river meets the ocean
a representation of a object or process
something built by people, like a building
the limit or border of an area or region
a drawing of an area, usually as though you were looking straight down on it
a person who makes maps
a network of vertical and horizontal lines that form squares
a color, shape or texture used to represent something else on a map, such as a building, road, or landform
an explanation of symbols used on a map
Drainage basin
a system of rivers and streams that drains an area like the Colorado Plateau
a shape or feature of the earth's surface, like a delta or canyon
a fan-shaped deposit of earth materials at a mouth of stream
a large, nearly level area that has been lifted above the surrounding area
eroded earth materials that have been deposited
the course or path the water takes in a stream or river
a curve or loop in a channel
Alluvial fan
a fan-shaped landform deposited at the end of a steep canyon where the slope becomes flatter; they are usually found in arid regions, like Death Valley
a very heavy flow of water, which is greater than the normal flow of water and goes over the stream's normal channel
Flash flood
rises and falls rapidly with little or no advance warning, usually as the result of very heavy rainfall over a relatively small area; flash floods can be caused by sudden heavy rainfall, dam failure, or the thaw of an ice jam
an embankment along a stream that protects land from flooding; levees can be natural or constructed dam - a construction or wall across a river that holds back the water flowing through the river, creating a reservoir or Lake
the area around a river that is covered by water flowing over the riverbank during a flood
the bottom of a mountain
Contour line
a line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation
Contour interval
the difference in elevation between contour lines
a vertical distance, or height, above sea level
the highest point of a mountain
Sea level
the average height of the ocean's surface, zero elevation
Topographic map
uses contour lines to show the shape and elevation of land's surface
a side view or cross-section of a landform such as a mountain
Bench mark
a surveyor's marker usually placed permanently in the ground at a known position an elevation
Perennial stream
always has water flowing in it
a narrow area of high land between two valleys
a large mass or body of moving ice
a low area between higher areas through which a river or stream often flows
Aerial photograph
a photograph of the earth's surface taken from an airplane or spacecraft flying above the earth
the ratio between a measured distance on a map to the actual distance in the real world
a person who measures and marks the distance, elevation, position, and boundaries of land areas
Bar scale
a ruler line on a topographic map that shows the scale representative
tells the scale of a map as a ratio between distance on a map to distance in the real world
a part of a river channel where the water moves rapidly over obstacles, such as large boulders; this is a landform on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon
Intermittent lake
contains water only during certain times of the year, such as the rainy season; it is a landform in Death Valley

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