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First student of Government
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terms list

First student of Government
a political community thet occupies a definite territory and has a organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without the approval from any higher authority
any sizable group of people who are united by common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and sometimes religion.
a country which the territory of both the nation and the state coincide
an agreement about basic beliefs
the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries
the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public service, provides for national security and a common defense, provides for and control the economic system
evolutionary theory
state evolved from the family
Force theory
government emerged when all people of an area were brought under the authority of one person or group
divine right
notion that a god or gods have chosen people to rule
Government purpose
maintain social order
Government purpose
provide public services
Government purpose
provide for national security and a common defense
Government purpose
provide for and control the economic system
unitary system
gives all key power to the national or cetral government
federal system
divides power of government between the national and state governments
a loose union of independent states
a plan that provides the rules for government
consitutional government
a government in which a consitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the power of those who govern
a statement in a constitution that sets forth the goals and purposes of government
constitutional law
law that involves the interpretation and appication of the consitution and state constitution
the effort ti control or influence the conduct and policies of government
industrialized nations
a nation with large industries and advanced technology
developing nations
a nation beginning to develop industrially
a system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual
totalitarian dictatorship
a system of government where the ideas of leaders are glorified and the government seeks to control all aspects of social and economic life
a king, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers of government
absolute monarchy
king or queen have complete power to rule their people
constitutional monarchy
king or queen share governmental power with elected legislatures or serve mainly as the ceremonial leaders of their governments
a system of government in which a small group holds power
government in which the people rule
direct democracy
poeple rule themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens; exists in small communities; meeting regularly
indirect (representative) democracy
people electrepresentatives and give them the responsiblity and power to make laws and conduct government
a government system in which voters hold sovereign power;elect representatives, resopnsible to the people, exercise that power; no monacrhy
political party
a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate canidates for office, win elections, condust government, and determine public policy
free enterprise
the opportunity to control one's own economic decisions
one person one vote
everyones vote carries the same weight
social consensus
when most people in a society accept democractic values and agree about the purpose and limits of government
civil society
a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations that are independent from the government
an economic system providing free choice and individual incentive for workers, investors, consumer, and business enterprises
free market
economic system in which buyers and sellers make free choices in the marketplace
adam smith
scottish philosopher and economist, proveded a philosophy for this new system;capitalism
the philosophy that government should keep its hands off the economy
mixed-market economy
economic system ran by both people and government
an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as health care and welfare
democratic socialism
an economic system in which the people have control over government through free elections and multiparty systems, but the government owns the basic means of production and most economic decisions
karl marx
german thinker and writer, a socialist who advocated violent revolution;against capitalism
capitalists who own the means of production
a person who works to produce goods
an economic system in which the central government directs all the major economic decisions
command economy
an economic system in which the government controls the factors of production
characteristics of democracy
individual liberty, majority rule, free elections, competing political parties

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