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a condition of
A distinct type of endomycorrhiza formed by glomeromycete fungi, in which the tips of the fungal hyphae that invade the plant roots branch into tiny treelike structures called arbuscles.
The macroscopic fruiting body of a sac fungus.
Any fungus of the class Ascomycetes (or subdivision Ascomycota) in which the spores are formed inside an ascus.
Ascus (plural, asci)
A saclike spore capsule located at the tip of the ascocarp in dikaryotic hyphae; defining feature of the Ascomycota division of fungi.
Elaborate fruiting body of a dikaryotic mycelium of a club fungus.
Member of the fungal phylum basidiomycota, club fungus. Clublike shape of basidium.
Basidium (plural, basidia)
A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms. The fungal division Basidiomycota is named for this structure.
Member of the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota, mostly aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores that probably represent the most primitive fungal lineage.
The common name for members of the phylum Basidiomycota. The name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium.
Referring to a multinucleated condition resulting from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division.
Conidium (plural, conidia)
A naked, asexual spore produces at the ends of hyphae in ascomycetes.
Traditional classification for a fungus with no known sexual stage. When a sexual stage for a so-called deuteromycete is discovered, the species is assigned to a phylum. Also called an imperfect fungus.
Referring to a mycellium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent.
A type of mycorrhiza in which the mycellium forms a dense sheath, or mantle, over the surface of the root. Hyphae extend from the mantle into the soil, greatly increasing the surface area for water and mineral absorption.
A type of mycorrhiza that, unlike ectomycorrhizae, does not have a dense mantle ensheathing the root. Instead, microscopic fungal hyphae extend from the root into the soil.
A powerful hydrolytic enzyme secreted by a fungus outside its body to digest food.
Member of the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, characterized by forming a distinct branching form of endomycorrhizae (symbiotic relationships with plant roots) called arbuscular mycorrhizae.
Haustorium (plural, haustoria)
In symbiotic fungi, specialized hyphae that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms.
A mycelium formed by the fusion of two hyphae that have genetically different nuclei.
A filament that collectively makes up the body of a fungus.
The fusion of nuclei of two cells, as part of syngamy.
Unicellular parasites of animals and protists that molecular comparisons suggest may be most closely related to zygomycete fungi.
A rapidly growing fungus that reproduces asexually by producing spores.
The densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus.
Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi.
The general term for a fungal infection.
Member of the clade Opisthokonta, organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals, and certain protists.
In animals and fungi, a small, volatile chemical that functions in communication and that in animals acts much like a hormone in influencing physiology and behavior.
The fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two individuals; occurs as one stage of syngamy.
Member of the phylum Ascomycota. Sac fungi range in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to minute leafspot fungi to elaborate cup fungi and morels. About half of the sac fungi live with algae in the mutualistic associations called lichens.
Septum (plural, septa)
One of the cross-walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell.
Small clusters of lichen hyphae with embedded algae.
Single-celled fungi that inhabit liquid or moist habitats and reproduce asexually by simple cell division or by the pinching of small buds off a parent cell.
Flagellated spore occurring in chytrid fungi.
Member of the fungal phylum Zygomycota, characterized by forming a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction.
In zygomycete fungi, a sturdy multinucleate structure, in which karyogamy and meiosis occur.
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