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Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell. from zygote and first cleavage blastomeres
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Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell. from zygote and first cleavage blastomeres
Ability to give rise to only one other type of cell. i.e. spermatogonial stem cells= sperm
Stem cells with the potential to give rise to all cell lineages. ESCs
a stem cell that can form multiple different cells of one lineage. adult stem cells (somatic) i.e. hemaopoeitic
reprogrammed cell
SCNT into oocytes, iPS cell, cell fusion
embryonic stem cell
Stem cell taken from inner cell mass of blastocyst, they can be transplanted into another embryo and develop into any tissue, depending on the situation
environmental asymmetry
daughter stem cell and cell capable of differentiation are products of the same environment which dictates their fate
divisional asymmetry
different environments. cells not same once split
stem cell
undifferentiated, self-renewing, infinite divisions, asymmetric
5 days old, from blastula, includes trophoblast, blastocyst cavity, inner cell mass (~30 cells)
The outer ring of cells of a blastocyst; forms the outer wall in early development.
new method of stem cell production
from blastocyst not blastula so does not kill embryo, remove one cell and grow single cell to produce stem cells, equivalent of inner cell mass, remaining cells produce embryo, still invasive with risks
culturing embryonic stem cells
requires feeder layer of cells to prevent differentiation and provide nutrients along with serum nutrients
Therapeutic complications for using human ESCs due to
contamination from animal products. from feeder cells (mouse fibroblasts) and culture nutrients (bovine serum)
ECS form aggregrates onthe feeder cells that can be
distinguished from feeder cells by markers
ESC aggregrates can form
embryoid bodies (that develop to cell layers) in vitro which occurs when removed from substratum (hanging drops)
embryoid bodies from ESC aggregates will differentiate similar to
blastocyst and eventually display different phenotypes, multiple embryonic layers (ecto, meso, endoderm)
addition of factors to media
can drive differentiation to multiple phenotypes
formation of teratomas in vivo
benign tumors that form upon injection of ES cells into immune deficient mice, can differentiate into tissues from all 3 embryonic layers
Adult stem cells
undifferentiated cells in a tissue, also in neonatal and embryonic tissues, aka tissue stem cells or somatic stem cells
Adult stem cell renewal
can renew indefinitely in vivo, more limited in vitro
adult stem cells are defined by their
function not by location or age
primary role of adult stem cells
produce differentiated cells for maintenance of tissues, repair of tissue in which they reside
origin of adult stem cells in mature tissues is
bone marrow adult stem cells have 2 lineages...
hematopoietic and mesenchymal or stromal cells
hematopoietic stem cells
commonly used for transplants, gives rise to committed progenitor cells, give rise to all lineages of blood cells
committed progenitor cells
have limited divisions
mesenchymal or stromal cells
give rise to a variety of cell lineages, cartilage, bone, fat, muscle
advantages of reprogrammed stem cells
avoidance of immune rejection problem, make stems cells look like your own, SCNT, iPS
SCNT or cloning
remove nucleus from oocyte, insert nucleus from patient's somatic cell (ex. skin). chemically (electrically) induce development (no sperm) culture in vivo
stem cells from SCNT
genetically identical to patient, except have maternal egg complement of mitochondrial DNA
Therapeutic cloning obstacle
would still need embryonic cells
reproductive cloning obstacles
high lethality, problems with survivors like large offspring phenomena

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