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Automaticity
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Ability of cardiac cells to initiate or generate an electrical impulse
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Automaticity
Ability of cardiac cells to initiate or generate an electrical impulse
AV Dissociation
Dysrhythmia also know as third degree heart block or complete heart block
"Rabbit Ears"
An informal term used to describe the notched appearance of the widened QRS complexes in bundle branch blocks.
Absolute refractory period
Period of time when the cardiac cells have not complete repolarization and can not contract again
Accessory Pathway
Additional or abnormal electrical conduction pathway; the Bundle of Kent (Kent Bundle) is one accessory pathway
AED
Automated external defibrillator; a temporary device that determines the patient's cardiac rhythm and defibrillates the heart, if necessary.
Antegrade
Downward movement of an electrical impulse from atria to ventricles
Artifact
Interference or static seen in the monitor
Artificial pacemaker
Small, battery-operated device,
Asystole
Complete lack of electrical activity in the heart; there is not pulse
Atrial Dysrhythmia
Rhythm that is initiated from any pacemaker site in the atria, when the sinoatrial node fails to initiate an electrical impulse
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of the nervous system that regulates many organs, such as hearth and blood vessels
AV node
Atrioventricular node; part of the normal electrical conduction pathway of the heart; may function as secondary pacemaker of the heart
Bigeminy of PVC
Every other QRS complex in a rhythm is a premature ventricular complex (PVC)
Biphasic (Diphasic)
Going in two opposite direction; describes a complex component that is both above and below the baseline
Bradycardia
Heart rate lower that 60 electrical impulses per minute
Buried P wave
The P wave is hidden or buried, within the QRS Complex and therefore not seen
Cardiac
Pertaining to the heart
Cardiac output
Amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in 1 minute
Compensatory pause
A pause in the rhythm the measures 2 times the R to R intervals of the underlying rhythm
Complex components
Set of waves seen on the monitor, which represent an electrical impulse traveling through the electrical conduction pathway of the heart, it includes P,Q, R, S & T waves
Conductivity
Ability of cardiac cells to transmit an electrical impulse
Contractility
Ability of cardiac cells to respond to an electrical impulse by contracting
Couplet:
Two PVC in a row
Cyanosis
Bluish-grey color of the lips, skin and nail beds caused by lack of oxygen
Delta wave
Extra "bump" seen in the slurred section at the beginning of a QRS complex; seen in Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome
Depolarization
Conduction of an electrical impulse trough the heart muscle; normally causes contraction
Diaphoresis
Extreme sweating; may accompany severe chest pain
Dyspnea
Difficult or painful breathing
Dysrhythmia
Abnormal cardiac rhythm; may be used interchangeable with the term arrhythmia
Electrodes
Adhesive pads that are attached to the patient's skin
Excitability
Ability of the cardiac cells to respond to an electrical impulse
Heart
Muscular organ that pumps blood to the body cells
Heart block
Partial or complete interruption in the normal cardiac electrical conduction system
Heart/Lung circulation
Transporting of blood from the body cells, through the heart and lungs, and back to the body cells
Hypercalcemia
Greater than normal amounts of calcium on the blood
Hyperkalcemia
Greater than normal amounts of potassium on the blood
Hypotension
Decreased blood pressure; below patient's normal blood pressure
Hypoxia
Lack of oxigen at the cell level of the body tissues
Hypovolimia
Decresed amount of blood in the heart chambers and blood vessels; caused by severe dehydration
Inherent Hear Rate
Normal rate at which electrical impulses are generated; the inherent heart rate for the AV junction is 40 to 60 impulses per minute
Inherent Heart Rate
Normal rate at which electrical impulses are generated; the inherent heart rate for the sinoatrial node is 60 to 100 heartbeats per minute
Inherent Heart Rate
Normal rate at which electrical impulses are generated; the inherent rate for the ventricles is 20 - 40 impulses/ min.
Intermittent heart block
Interruption of the conduction of an electrical impulse that occurs suddenly and without warning, completely blocking the conduction of the impulse to
Inverted P wave
Inverted or up-side down, P wave before the QRS Complex
Juntional Dysrhythmia
Cardiac Dysrhythmia that is initiated in the AV node(AV Juntional area)when the SA node and the atrial site fail to initiate an electrical impulse
Leads
Wires that connect the electrodes to the monitor or telemetry unit , also called lead wires
Leads( with capital "L")
Specific placement of the electrodes on the patient's skin
Lethal dysrhythmia
A dysrhythmia that can not sustain life; death producing
Lungs
Two organs that remove carbon dioxide from the blood, replacing with oxygen
Mobitz I
Dysrhythmia also known as second-degree heart block, type I or Wenckebach
Mobitz II
Dysrhythmia also known as second-degree heart block, type II or classic
MONA Protocol
Morphine, Oxygen, Nitroglycerin & Aspirin Treatment protocol for acute coronary syndrome
Monitor
A TV-like screen that shows the conduction of the electrical impules as they travel through the electrical conduction pathway of the heart
Multifocal PVCs:
Originates from different site in the ventricles; this PVCs vary in size any shape; also know as polymorphic.
Non-compensatory pause
A pause in the rhythm the measures less than 2 times the R to R interval of the underlying rhythm
Normal electrical conduction pathway
Sinoatrial (SA) node to Atrioventricular (AV) node, through the bundle of His and bundle branches, to the Purkinje's fibers, ending in the ventricular muscle
P to P interval
Lenght of the time between the P wave and the next P wave. Refers to atrial contraction
Paroxysmal
Sudden, intermittent start and stop of symptoms or dysrhythmias; usually used to describe a type of atrial tachycardia
Polarization
Cardiac ready stage; the cells are ready to receive an electrical impulse
Premature complex
A complex that occurs earlier than expected in the underlying rhythm
Progressive heart block
Interruption of the conduction of an electrical impulse that becomes longer with each impulse, until it is completely blocked and does not reach the ventricles.
Pulmonary
Pertaining to the Lungs
PVC
Premature ventricular complex; a complex that originate at nay side below the bundle of His and occurs earlier than expected
Quadrigeminy of PVC
Every fourth QRS complex in a rhythm is a premature ventricular complex (PVC)
R on T phenomenon:
Occurs when a P wave of a PVC falls on the T wave of the previous complex.
R to R interval
Length of time between one R wave and the next R wave
Rate
Number of electrical impulses conducted in 1 minute
Refractory period
Time between depolarization and repolarization
Relative refractory time
The period of time when cardiac cells have depolarized enough that some cells came be stimulated to depolarize
Repolarization
Cardiac recovery phase; the cells are returning to the ready stage
Retrograde P wave
A P wave that is seen after the QRS Complex; it is also inverted
Rhythm
Regularity of the appearance of the complex components
Run of ventricular tachycardia:
Three or more PVC in a row; also called salvo or burst.
Salvo
Run of ventricular tachycardia; may be also called a burst of PVC
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Pacemaker of the heart; it usually initiates the electrical impulses that travel through the electrical conduction pathway of the heart
Sinus Rhythm
Cardiac rhythm that show the movement of an electrical impulse traveling from the sinoatrial node to the ventricles, following the normal electrical conduction pathway
STEMI
ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Tachycardia
Heart rate faster than 100 electrical impulses per minute
Trigeminy of PVC
Every third QRS complex in a rhythm is a premature ventricular complex (PVC)
Unifocal PVCs
Premature ventricular complexes that originates from one side in the ventricles; these PVCs look the same; may also be known as monomorphic
Ventricular Dysrhythmia
Cardiac dysrhythmia that is initiated from a pacemaker cell in the ventricles when the SA node, other atrial pacemaker sites, and the AV junction fail to initiate an electrical impulse
Ventricular rupture
Tear or break in the muscle of the ventricle; usually caused by MI, or trauma such as a gunshot wound or stabbing.
Vulnerable period (relative refractory period)
Time during the cardiac cycle when ventricular cells have repolarized to the point that some cells can be stimulated to depolarize (contract) again, if the stimulus is strong enough
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