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Principles of Change
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Digestion, Absorption, Transport, Metabolism
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Principles of Change
Digestion, Absorption, Transport, Metabolism
the process in which food is broken down in te GI tract, releasing many nutrients in forms the body can use
process in which nutrients are taken into the cells lining the GI tract
movement of nutrients through the circulatory system from one area ofthe body to another
the sum of vast number of chemical changes in the cell, the functional unit of life, which finally produces the essential materials necessary for energy, tissue building and metabolic controls
Principle of Wholeness
food components travel through this system until they ultimately are delivered to the cells or excreted as waste
the ability to move spontaneously. This automatic response to the presence of food enables the system to break up the food mass and move it along the digestive pathway
Muscle Tone or Tonic Contraction
ensures coninuous passage of the food mass and valve control along the way
Periodic Muscle Contraction and Relaxation
are rhythmical waves that mix food mass and move it forward
alternating muscular contractions and relaxations that force the contents forward
Intramural Nerve Complex
a complex network of nerves in the GI wall, extends from the esophagus to the anus
Intramural Nerve Complex Functions
1. control muscle tone in the wall 2. regulate the rate and intensity of te alternating muscle contractions 3. coordinate all the various movements
Hydrochloric Acid and Buffer Ions
needed to produce the correct pH necessary for enzyme activity
Protiens, specific in kind and quantity for breaking down nutrients
lubricate and protect the mucosal lining in the GI tract as well as help mix food mass
Water and Electrolytes
the products of digestion are carried and circulated through the GI tract and into tissues
made in the live and stored in the Gallbladder, devides fat into smaller pieces to expose more area for actions of fat enzymes
Secretory Cells
action of these cells or glands is stimulated by 1. presence of food, 2. nerve impulse, 3. hormones specific for certain nutrients
(biting and chewing) begins to break down food into smaller particles
Salivary Amylase (Ptyalin)
general name for any starch splitting enzyme
Lingual Lipase
secreted from small glands in the back of the tounge (Ebner's Glands), during infancy is more relevant enzyme for milk fat
the upper portion of the stomach in individual bolus lumps
lower portion of the stomach
Small Intestine
the major task of digestion and absorption
Peristaltic Waves
push food forward over the entire length of the intestine
Pendular Movements
from small local muscles, sweep back and forth, stirring the chyme at the mucosal surface
Segmentation Rings
alternating contraction and relaxation of circular muscles progressively chop the food mass into successive soft lumps and mix them with secretions
Longitudinal Rotation
long running muscles running the length of the intestine, rolls the slowly moving food in a spiral motion mixing it and exposing new surfaces for absorption
Surface Villi Motions
stir and mix the chyme at the intestinal wall, exposing additional nutrients for absorption

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