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process that produces a progressive change that are orderly and coherent and which leato an end in maturity
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terms list

process that produces a progressive change that are orderly and coherent and which leato an end in maturity
Quantitive development
example: growth
Qualitive development
example: development
Heredity, environment
factors governing development
ex: maturation
ex: learning
Principle of reproduction, variation, dominance and recessiveness, chance, sex-linked characteristics
principles of heredity
product of the interaction of maturation and learning
conception to birth
birth to 18 months
early childhood
18 months to 6 years
middle childhood
6 to 12
12 to 20
young adulthood
20 to 45
middle adulthood
45 to 60
late adulthood
60 to death
epigenetic stage theory of human development
one in which stages are determined by an interaction of genetic and environmental influences
concept of mental structures which form the building blocks of understanding
behavioral, symbolic, operational
types of schemas
face schema
ability to recognize the human face
new information is incorporated into existing schemas
new information if fit; squeezed with other schemas
process by which there is a change in behavior as a result of experience
process by which the genetic potentials are expressed
cognitive development
gradual orderly changes where mental processes become more complex and sophisticated
cognitive development theory
0-2, child learns through motor and reflex actions
object permanence
to know an object still exists even if it isnt within the senses
2-7, uses symbols to represent objects, egocentric,
only sees from his own viewpoint, and assumes people see from his
concrete operational
7-11, develops ability to think abstracty and make rational judgements about observable phenomena, can mentally manupulate information
formal operational
11- up, no longer needs concrete objects for rational judgements, capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning
sociocultural theory of cognitive development
sociocultural theory of cognitive development
the role of social and language in the child's development
zone of proximal development
children are likely to learn from others when there is only a small gap between what children are able to do on their own and what they could do with help from a skilled person
process where the amount of help and guidance given is tailored to the individual's responses
unconscious process by which an individual takes on the characteristics of another person
sex roles
approves ways in which men and women are expected to behave
sex typing
aquisition of characteristics and behaviors that one's culture considers appropriate for male and females
sex role identity
degree which ine regards oneself as female/ male.
media, family, school
sex-linked behavior causes
theory of moral development
preconventional morality
level 1
preconventional morality
child avoid punishment and attain satisfaction
stage 1
punishment and obedience
stage 2
instrumental exchange orientation
instrumental exchange orientation
actions are based largely on satisfying one's own personal needs; child will help if help is returned
conventional morality
children desire approval, actively support society and standards
conventional morality
level 2
conventional morality
preconventional morality
stage 3
children seek approval of others (good boy/girl mentality)
stage 4
law and order mentality
post conventional morality
individual does not appeal to other people for moral decisionws; made by an enlightened conscience
post conventional morality
level 3
post conventional morality
13 - above
stage 5
social contract orientation
social contract orientation
behavior recognizes the laws are arbitrary and changeable
stage 6
universal ethics orientation
universal ethics orientation
morality is based on respect for others rather than personal desires
allows babies to practice motor, cognitive and social competencies and achive mastery
social development
development of human relationships
strong emotional bond which is formed with the caregiver in infancy and usually remains life long
signalling behavior
crying, cooing, babbling, smiling
approach behavoir
clinging, sucking, eye contact
interaction model
attachment is dependant of the babies responses
theory of attachment
attachment isnt dependant of the babies responses or those of the mother but each infulences another
seperation anxiety
when babies become very distressed at the absence of the caregiver
Protest, despair, detachment
stages of seperation
anger, loud crying
withdrawal, less crying
displays cheerful behavior but remains emotionally distant
secure attachment
child is distressed and play is reduces when parent is gone, seeks contact on parents return
avoidant attachment
child isnt distressed and play isnt reduced when parent is gone, doesnt care about parent's return
protests stongly on parents leave and seeks contact strongly on parent's return
authorative parents
set reasonable standards enforcing them firmly, no punishment, expect kid to conform, kid becomes self confident and gains self esteem
authoritarian parents
expect obedience, less communication, use punishmen. teenage offspring have poor grades not able to regulate behavior
permissive parents
make little attempt to regulate child's behavior, give few demands. child tends to be immature and do worse in school
uninvolved parents
neglectful, children show avoidant attachment and later show antisocial patterns of social relationships
basic trust vs. mistrust
infancy, feeding
autonomy vs. shame
early childhood 18-3, toilet training
initiative vs. guilt
early childhood 3-6, independance
industry vs. inferiority
middle childhood, school
identity vs. roleconfusion
adolescence, peer relationships
intimacy vs. isolation
early adulthood, love relationships
generativity vs. stagnation
middle adulthood, parenting
ego integrity vs. despair
late adulthood, life review
period between childhood and adulthood
biological, legal, status
adulthood markers
erikson and levinson
proposed stage theories of lifespan
series of life transitions that reflect common patterns of changing family and work roles accross the life span
selective optimization with compensation (based on goal theory)
selection, optimization, compensation, loss based selection
fundamental processes by which individual's manage thier lives
developing and commiting to a set of personal goals
effort, skills and resources the individual invests in achieving these goals
finding alternate means to achieving goals when previous means are no longer available
loss-based selection
further process of selection that reevaluates existing goels and identifies new ones
old age
time of physical and mental deterioration
gradual decline
theories of old age focused on cumming's and henry's theory
cumming and henry
disengagement theory
disengagement theory
retirement and other events such as death of a spouse will lead to restictions in life style
successful aging
trust developed in childhood
will, purpose, competence
gained through childhood
sense of identity and values gained in adolescence
love, care
intimacy and relationships in adulthood
attaining ego integrity
ego integrity
enables to maintain positive sense of self
life review
to reflect on their accomplishments and to find a sense of meaning or purpose
being treated as an object not as a person
using deception to manipulate, forcing then to comply
not allowing the individual to use the abilities they retain
teating and talking to them as if talking to a baby
use of threats or physical power
treating the person as a diseased object

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