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The study and comparison of fingerprints as a means of criminal id; first used for that purpose in England in 1900, but a means of identification since the first century.
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The study and comparison of fingerprints as a means of criminal id; first used for that purpose in England in 1900, but a means of identification since the first century.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A nucleic acid consisting of the molecules that carry the body's genetic material and establish each person as separate and distinct.
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
Federal Agency created in 1973, responsible for enforcing laws on illicit drugs and fighting international drug traffic; also trainins state/local police in investigative work regarding illegal drugs, surveillance, and use of informants.
Enderby Cases
Two rape-murder cases in England that involved the first use of DNA typing, in 1987 in a criminal case. DNA samples recovered from both victims led to the release of an innocent man and the subsequent arrest and conviction of the killer.
Fielding, Henry
In 1748, Henry became chief magistrate to the "Bow Street Runners."
Fielding, John
John (1/2 brother to Henry) succeeded him who carried on Henry's ideas for 25 years. Under John, Bow Street became a clearinghouse for information on crime, and by 1785 at least four of the runners were paid government detectives.
The Henry System
Created by Edward Henry, the fingerprint classification system that uses fingerprints in criminal identification; adopted in England in 1900 and used today in almost every country.
Galton, Francis
Cousin to Charles Darwin, turned his attention to criminal investigation. He published the first real book on Dactylography, Finger Prints. It gave statistical proof of the uniqueness of fingerprints and outlined many principles of identification by fingerprints.
Girard, Stephen
Due to the success of Sir Robert Peel's reform in England, Stephen Girard left $33,190 in his will to the city of Philadelphia to develop a competent police force. So, in 1833, the city passed an ordinance creating America's first paid, daylight police force.
Goddard, Henry
One of the last Bow Street Runners, made the first successful attempt to identify a murderer from a bullet recovered from the body of a victim.
Goddard, Calvin
A U.S. Army veteran doctor during WWI, is the person considered most responsible for raising firearms identification to a science and for perfecting the bullet comparison microscope.
Gross, Hans
He wrote the first major book describing the application of scientific disciplines to criminal investigation.
Important Authors of Investigation & Criminalistics
Harry Soderman/John O'Connell co-wrote Modern Criminal Investigation in 1935. Paul Kirk wrote Crime Investigation in 1953. Albert Osborn wrote Questioned Documents.
Contributors to Investigation & Criminalistics
Edmond Locard worked on microscope evidence. Leone Lattes made a technique that permits blood typing from a dried bloodstain. August Vollmer/John Larson developed the first workable polygraph in 1921. Vollmer established America's first full forensic lab in Los Angeles in 1923.
Pinkerton, Allan
He formed the Pinkertons in 1850 along with Edward Rucker; the only consistently competent detectives in the U.S. for over 50 years. They wrote everything down and housed it in a clearinghouse.
National Crime Information Center (NCIC)
The FBI's online system of extensive databases on criminals and crime; available to federal, state, and local agencies.
Vucetich, Juan
In 1894, he published Dactiloscopia Comparada, outlining his method of fingerprint classification. In 1892, a student of his, Inspector Alvarez, obtained south American's first criminal conviction based on fingerprints by using his system to convict a woman of beating her two children to death.
National Academy
In 1932, the FBI started a crime lab and made its services available for free to state and local police. In 1935, they began a training course.
Palo Verde Seedpod Case
1992, case that used "genetic finger printing" from plant evidence, in Phoenix, AZ.
Police Spies
Early detectives in plain clothes. Londoners were fearful of using them because it would reduce their civil liberties.
Popay, Sergeant
He was fired following a parlimentary investigation that revealed he had infiltrated a radical group, acquired a leadership position and argued for the use of violence.
Rogues' Gallery
Began by the NYC Police Department in 1857. They were photographs of known offenders and were arranged by criminal specialty and height so that detectives could study them in order to recognize criminals on the street.
Scotland Yard
Original headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police, call that because the building formerly housed Scottish Royalty.
Department of Treasury federal agents for the Bureau of Internal Revenue.
West Case
A 1903, incident in which two criminals with the same name, identical appearances, and nearly identical measurements were both in Leavenworth Prison. The only thing different about them were their fingerprints. This advanced the use of fingerprints for identification in the U.S.
Mulberry Street Morning Parade
Started by Chief Detective Thomas Byrnes, in NYC late 1800's. A new approach to criminal identification, all new arrestees marched each morning before detectives so that they could make notes and later recognize the criminals.
Metropolitan Police Act
An act of Parliament that created the London Metropolitan Police, the first centralized, professional police force in Britain. It became the international model for professional policing.
It was based on the fact that every human being is different in the exact measurements of their body, and that the sum of these measurements yields a characteristic. Theory was developed by Alphonse Bertillion who is regarded as the father of criminal identification.
Bow Street Runners
In 1750, Henry Fielding established a small group of volunteers, non-uniformed home owners to "take thieves." These Londoners hurried to the scene of reported crimes and began investigations, becoming the first modern detective force.
Sir Robert Peel
He created the first Metropolitan Police Force in London. "Bobbies or Peelers" were named after him.
The application of scientific disciplines, such as geology, physics, chemistry, biology, and math, to criminal investigation and the study of physical evidence.
Who were the Bow Street Runners (BSR), and of what historical importance are they?
They became the first modern detective force. Henry Fielding started the BSR in 1748, they were all volunteer-homeowners, wore no uniforms, who helped catch thieves by rushing to crime scenes and starting the investigation.
Why did the British public object to the use of detectives after enactment of the Metro Police Act of 1829?
"Bobbies" or "Peelers" were not immediately popular. The Brits were suspicious and hostile to the new force. There was fear that the use of "Police Spies" - detectives in plain clothes—would reduce personal civil liberties.
Why did the profession of detective in this country basically evolve in the private sector?
The use of uniformed constables to prevent crime vs. plainclothes constables for investigation and surveillance became clear, the public was uneasy. Sgt Popay, was fired for infiltrating a radical group, getting a leadership role, and argued for violence. The force was limited to 16, operations were restricted due to mistrust of "clandestine methods."
What assessment can be made of the work of Pinkerton and his National Detective Agency?
They were focused on two broad areas: (1) controlling a discontented working class, pushing for getter wages, and working conditions (2) pursuing bank and railroad robbers. They kept excellent records of suspect information. Their trademark was an open eye above the slogan: "We never sleep." Later became "Private Eye."
What is a Rogues' Gallery?
It is a police collection of pictures or photographs of criminals and suspects kept for identification purposes.
What parallels can be drawn between Allan Pinkerton and J. Edgar Hoover?
Both ran the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
What is Anthropometry, and why was it abandoned in favor of Dactylography?
Anthropometry was based on human body measurements. The theory was abandoned because a person might grow and undergo other physical changes, yet a person's fingerprints remain the same.
What are the milestones in the development of dactylogrphy?
1684 England's Dr. Grew observes pores and ridges in hands and feet; 1823 Perkinje develops nine standard fingerprint patterns and classification system; 1892 Galton publishes "Fingerprints," first definitive book on dactylogrphy; 1894 Vucetich publishes "Dictiloscopia Comparada", outlining his system.

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