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Lifestyle and career development have been emphasized since
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the begining of the counseling and guidance movement and are still major areas of concern.
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Lifestyle and career development have been emphasized since
the begining of the counseling and guidance movement and are still major areas of concern.
Frank Parsons
Founding Father of Guidance
When a female wants to advance to higher position in competition with males (glass ceiling) counselor should suggest
"Let's be rational: A woman can only advance so far. You really have very little chance of becming a corporate executive. I'm here to help you coope with this reality."
Glass ceiling:
phenomenon suggest that women are limited in terms of how far they can advance in the world of work. The glass ceiling effect is a form of occupational sex role stereotyping that can limit womens careers.
Lavender ceiling
The concept of the glass ceiling for women is analogous which purports that the same basic notion is true for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered individuals.
Reentry women or displaced homemaker
Women who have made the transition from homemaker but is currently in need of work to support her family
Most research indicate that students
has a very high proportion of students in high school and at the junior high or middle -school level wanted guidance in planning a career. Career interests are more stable after college
54% and hovering around 60% when families with children are added
are dual-career workers comparied to the 1950 statistic of 20.4 &
Studies indicate that children (students)
Want more vocational guidance that they receive
Guidance is seen as
a developmental and educational process within a school system
Career counseling is viewed as
A therapeutic service for adults performed outside an educational setting.
Gender bias
A female belevies she cannot really become an administrator in her agency because she is a woman
The trait and factor theory is considered
The first major and most durable theory of career choice
Means that empirical statitical data is used rather than simply relying on subjective clinical judgment.
Parsons and Williamson
The trait and factor career counseling, actuarial, or matching approach ( which matches clients with a job) is associated with who?
The trait and factor model emphaizes
Individual differences; some ask if the trait and factor model is grounded in "differential psychology", which is the study of individual differences.
The trait and factor theory assumes
that an individual's traits can be measured so accurately that the choice of an occupation is a one-time process
Trait and factor model is often used
for computer career guidance programs
Trait and factor or actuarial approach asserts that testing
is an important part of the counseling process and that a counselor can match the correct person with the appropriate job
Parsons suggest three stepts to implement the trait-and factor approach
knowledge of the self and aptitudes and interests; knowledge of jobs, including the advantages and disadvantages of them; and matching the individual with the work.
Remanants of the trait-and factor approach are still evident in some of the modern theories such as
those suggested by Crites, Super, and Holland.
In 1909 a landmark book entitled
Choosing a Vocation was released, written by Parsons and is or has been called the Father of Vocational guidance
has been suggested to describe " multiculturalism"
Roe's theory
Third force psychology usually refers
to humanistic approaches
The trait and factor approach attempts
to match the person's traits with the requirements of a job, usually relies on psycometric information, and is associated with the work of parsons and Williamson
Developmental approaches
delineate stages or specify vacational choice in terms of a process which can change throughout the life span.
The developmental theories proposed by
Super, Tiedeman, and O'Hara are derived from developmental psychology.
Williamson's work (Minnesota Viewpoint)
pouports to be scientific and didactic, utilizing test data from instruments such as the Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales.
The trait and factor approach fails to
take in to account individual change throughout the life span.
Ann Roe suggested a personality approach to career choice
based on the premise that a job satisfies an unconscious need.
Some refer to Roe's work as the Person-environment theory which is
primarily psychoanalytic, though it also draws on Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Roe's maor propositions are that needs which are :
satisfied do not become unconscious motivators; that higher order needs will disappear even if they are rarely satisfied, but lower order needs ( such as safety) will be the major concern; and that needs which are satisfied after a long delay will become unconscious motivators.
Roe emphasized that early childhood
rearing practices influence later career choices since a job is a major source of gratification for an unconscious need
Fields and levels
Roe was the first career specialist to utilize a two-dimensional system of occupational classification utilizing :
Fields include
Service, business contact, organization, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and art/entertainment.
The six levels
of occupational skill include professional and managerial 1 and professional and managerial 2, semiprofessional/ small business, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled
Roe spoke of three basic parenting styles
Overprotective, avoidant, or acceptant
The avoidant or some call ( rejecting)
is an emotionally cold or hostile style.
The acceptant style is
If a person moves toward people he or she would choose the fields (Roe)
of service, business, organization, or general cultural
If the person moves away from people (Roe)
Would gravitate toward outdoor, science, or perhaps technology.
Research tends to support the contention that an individual raised in a warm, accepting family where person-to person interaction
was rewarded would tend to seek out career emphasizing contact with others and a cold avoiding family of origin would more likely produce an individual who would shun person-oriented careers
Roe's theory relies on
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs in the sense that in terms of career choice lower order needs take precedence over higher order needs (The job meets the most urgent need)
Some support for Roe's theory
Come from the Rorschach and the TAT.
In terms of genetics, Roe's theory
would assert that genetics help to determine intelligence and education and hence this influences one's career choice.
Roe review
Career choice is influenced by genetics, parent-child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, interests (people/things), education, and intellignece.
According to Anne Roe, who categorized occupations by fields and levels
The choice of a career helps to satisfy an individual's needs
Job refers to :
a given position or similar positions within an organization
Occupation is
broader and refers to similar jobs occupied via different people in different setting (psychotherapist)
Roe and another theorist reconized the role of the
unconscious mind in terms of career choice-Bordin

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