1 / 95
Alfred Adler; Carl Jung
❮ prev next ❯
1 / 95
Alfred Adler was the father of individual psychology and Carl Gustav Jung founded analytic psychology
❮ prev next ❯

terms list

Alfred Adler; Carl Jung
Alfred Adler was the father of individual psychology and Carl Gustav Jung founded analytic psychology
Freud 's structural therory & Eric Berne's TA
Freud's id, ego, and superego; Berne's Child, the Adult, and the Parent roughtly correspond
Parent; superego
In Berne's TA the Parent is the conscience or ego state whereas in Freud's theory the superego is concerned with moral behavior
Successful resolution of the Oedipus complex
Leads to the development of the superego, which is accomplished by identification with the aggressor, the parent of the same sex
Psychoanalytic concept which implies that the client displaces emotion felt toward a parent onto the analyst, cousnselor, or therapist
Thanatos; Eros
Eros is the Greek god of the love of life. To the Freudians this means self preservation. Thanatos is the Greek word for death- Freudian writings use the word to describe a death wish or what is sometimes called the death instinct.
Specialist who study death
Fulcrum analogy or seesaw
Counselors often use this analogy to explain the relationship of the id, ego, and superego.
Systematic desensitization
Is a form of behavior therapy based on Pavlov's classical conditioning
Latent content or manifest content
Manifest is the surface meaning and Latent content is the hidden meaning.
Little Albert
A famous case associated with the work of John Broadus Watson created a conditioned or learned response to be afraid of furry objects
In contrast psychoanalysis, psychodynamic counseling or therapy
utilizes fewer session per week, does not utilize the couch, is performed face to face
Catharsis and /or abreaction
Talking about difficulties in order to purge emotions and feeling is curative process known as ?
accurate empathy
Means that the counselor can truly understand what the client is feeling or experiencing
Reflection of content
is accomplished when the counselor restates the client's verbalization in such a manner that the client becomes more aware of his or her emotions.
Irrational thinking at point B
Ellis (REBT) feelt that this is at the core of emotional distubance
Bibliotherapy is a form of
Refuting irrational ideals and replacing them with rational ones
Therapeutic congnitive restructuring really refers to :
Pictures in your mind are to Glasser's Choice Theory
Are to Glasser's as internal verbalizations are to REBT
Cognitive Disputatuon
The act of changeing the client's mode of thinking is sometimes called:
A client says I lost my job and it's the most terrible thing in the world.
This client is engaging n awfulizing and terriblizing, also known as catastrophizing.
Shoulds and oughts are ----------------- according to Ellis
A philosopher most closely related to REBT would be
Internal verbalizations
In REBT the client is taught to change cognitions also known as:
Positive addiction
Must be a noncompetitive activity which can be performed alone for about one hour each day Glasser stressed which will instill hope
Like that of a friend who asks what is wrong
The relationship that the therapist has with the client in reality therapy
Schools Without Failure
Glasser 's theory was poopularized in educational circles after he wrote:
The eighth step in Glasser reality therapy process:
Asserts that the client and counselor be persistent and never give up
When the past is discussed in reality theory the focus is on
Successful behaviors
Glasser's position on mental illness is
Diagnostic labels give clients permission to act sick or irresponsible.
Ontology ( do not confuse with oncolgy)
A Metaphysical study of life experience is called:
Refers to the client internal personal experience of events, and ontology which is the philosophy of being and existing
Free choice, decision, and will
Existential counselors emphasize the clients:
Logotherapists often use the term noogenic neurosis, which is flustration of the will to meaning in life so he can :
Write his or her own life story by making meaningful choices
Existentialists speak of there worlds:
Umwelt= physical; Eigenwelt= Identity; Miwelt=relationship
Systematic desenitization
Consists of these orderly steps, relaxation training, construction of anxiety hierarchy, desensitization in imagination, and in vivo desensitization
Sensate focus
is a form of behavioral sex therapy developed by William H. Masters and Viginia Johnson
Conditioned reflex therapy
Created by Andrew Salter, set the stage for modern assertiveness training. Some call Salter, who hated the psychoanalytic model, the father of behavior therapy
Test anxiety
Yerkes-Dodson Law states it is not necessary or desirable to eliminate all anxiety in order to score well on comprehensive exams
Premack principle
an efficient reinforcer is what the client himself or herself likes to do. Thus, in this procedure a lower-probability behavior is reinforced by a higher probalitiy behavior.
Premack principle
LPB (low-probability behavior) and HPB (high -probability behavior) asserts that any HPB can be used as a reinforcr for any LPB
A directive
A client who is having panic attacks is told to practice relaxing his jaw muscle for theree minutes per day
Counseling paradigm
A treatment model
Charting the occurrence of the behavior prior to any therapeutic intervention
A behavioristic counselor decides upon aversive conditioning as the treatment of choice for a gentleman who wishes to give up smoking. The counselor begins by taking a baseline. How is this accomplished?
Instrumental conditioning
In general, behavior modification strategies are based heavily on :
Behavior therapy
Is based on classical conditioning
A sequence of behaviors in which one response renders a cue that the next response is to occur. Mostly just a series of operants joined together by reinforcers
Experimental neurosis
Too many Conditioned stimus added so as the animal or person get confused and exhibits nerosis
A child is ignored when acting out so as to stop the behavior-warning-usually gets worse before getting better
No conditioning
Putting the first unconditioned stimus before the conditioned stimulus (the meat and then the bell)
Positive punishment/Negative punishment
Something is added after behavior decreases(positive); Something is removed following an unwanted behavior and the response decreases.
Reality therapy
Excuses are not accepted, the unconscious is avoided, and therapy is concerned primarily with the here-and-now
Cognitive restructuring
usually refers to Donald Meichenbaum's approach, which is similar to REBT
Bibliotherapy is a form of
Keep in mind that Ellis, Glasser and the behaviorists put little stock in the notion of transference
Only man thinks in declarations ( internal sentences that can cause or ward off emotional discord).
Ellis most likely would not be impressed with a behaviorist's new animal study related to the psychotherapeutic process since:
Beck's contension of depression
is the result of a cognitive triad of negative beliefs regarding oneself, one's future, and one's expereince
TA is a cognitive model of therapy which asserts that healthy communication transaction
Occurs where vectors of communication run parallel
A TA counselor and a strict behaviorist are both in the same case conference to staff a client. Which technique would they most likely agree on when formulating a plan of action?
A life script is actually
a life drama or plot
Eric Berne is to TA as
Fritz Perls is to Gestalt
Carkhuff and Gazda
Empathy and counselor effectiveness scales reflect the work of:
Acronym NLP is an abbreviation of
Bandler and Grinder's Neurolinguistic programming.
Gestalt means
a form, figure, or configuration unified as a whole. It can also imply that the intergrated whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
Perls suggested_____________Which must be peeled away to reach emotional stability.
Five layers of neurosis. He likened the process of therapy to that of peeling an onion.
Perls five layers
The person has a phonely layer, a phobic layer( fear that others will reject his or her uniqueness), an impasse layer ( the person feels stuck) the implosive layer( willingness to expose the true self) and the explosive layer( person has relief due to authenticity.
Gestalt--Unfinished business
When an unexpressed feeling of resentment, rage, guilt, anxiety, or other emotion interferes with present situations and causes difficulties.
The term Gestalt
Perls borrowed the term from the system of psychology proposed by Max Wertheimer of Germany which emphazied that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
The Gestalt therapy emphasizes
Awareness in the here-and -now and dream work
The Gestalt dialogue experiment generally utilizes the concepts of
Top dog, underdog,( or games of dialogue and the empty chair technique)
Glasser's Choice Theroy postulates
Behavior is really an attemp to control our perceptions to satisfy our genetic needs--survival, love, and belonging, power, freedom, and fun.
Critics assert that gestalt therapy is an affective treatment that
Often fails to emphasize cognitive concerns.
Rogers' approach is characterized as
Existential or humanistic ( sometimes called "third force psychology") because it was a reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis-the two initial forces at the time.
In person-centered
Reflection is used a lot yet the counselor rarely gives advice.
Rogers viewed man as
Positive when he develops in a warm, accepting, trusting environment
Rogers (person-centered)
Individual is good and moves toward growth and self-actualization
Bern (transactional Analysis)
Messages learned about self in childhood determine whether person is good or bad, through intervention can change this scrip
Freud (Psychoanalysis)
Deterministic; people are controlled by biological instincts; are unsocialized, irrational; driven by unconscious forces such as sex and aggression
Ellis ( Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy)
People have a cultural/biological propensity to think in a disturbed manner but can be taught to use their capacity to react differently.
People are not bad or good, People have the capacity to govern life effectively as " whole." People are part of their environment and must be viewed as such.
Glasser ( Reality Therapy)
Individuals strive to meet basic psysiological needs and the need to be worthwhile to self and others. Brain control system tries to meet needs.
Adler (Individual Psychology)
Man is basically good; much of behavior is determined via birth order.
Jung ( Analytic Psychology)
Man strives for individuation or a sense of self-fulfillment.
Skinner ( Behavior Modification)
Humans are like other animals: mechanistic and controlled via environmental stimuli and reinforcement contingencies; not good or bad; no self-determination or freedom
Bandura (Neobehavioristic)
Person produces and is a product of conditioning
Frankl (Logotherapy)
Existential view is that humans are good, rational, and retain freedom of choice
Williamson (Trait-factor)
Through education and scientific data, man can become himself. Humans are born with potential for good or evil. Others are needed to help unleash positive potential. Man is mainily rational, not intuitive.
The counselor's social power is related to
Expertise, attractiveness, and Trustworthiness (memory technique) "EAT"
Key areas that often cause problems for the counselor's self-image are
Competence, power , and intimacy which impact the counselor's social influence
Allen E Ivey has postulated three types of empathy
Basic, subtractive, and additive
Basic empathy
the counselor's response is on the same level as the client's
Subtractive empathy
The counselor's behavior does not completely convey an understanding of what has been communicated.
Addictive empathy
Is most desirable since it adds to the client's understanding and awareness
The human relations core for effective counseling includes
Empathy, positive regard ( or respect), and genuineness
Difference in Human Relations core and Social Influence core
Social influence core: expertise, attractiveness and trustworthiness; and human relations core is: empathy, positive regard ( or respect) and genuineness

more from user

NCE Sample Questions (part 2a

25 items en en

NCE Study Questions (Part2 b)

25 items en en

NCE Sample Questions Part (1A)

24 items en en

NCE study Guide

81 items en en

NCE Study Guide Questions (Part 1)

25 items en en

NCE Study of Theories

50 items en en

Counseling--Human Growth

25 items en en

Theorist Views

12 items en en


21 items en en


29 items en en


13 items en en