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4 Function of the Muscular System
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Movement, Posture, Joint Stability, Heat Production
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4 Function of the Muscular System
Movement, Posture, Joint Stability, Heat Production
Muscles contract, cause movement at joints
Hold you upright
Joint Stability
Hold bones/joints in place and allow movement
Heat Production
Muscles contract and cause blood flow to the area increases heat
4 Characteristics of Muscle as they relate to function
Excitability, Extensibility, Contractility, Elasticity
Muscles ability to react to stimuli
Muscles ability to lengthen/or be stretched
Muscles ability to shorten/contract
Muscles ability to recoil/return to original length
Structure (parts) of Skeletal Muscle
Epimysium, Perimysium, Endomysium
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds the entire muscle
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds a bundle of muscle fibers
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds the individual muscle fibers
Muscle Attachments
Ligament, Origin, Insertion, Tendon, Aponeurosis
Cord like bunch of dense fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone (avascuslar)
End of a muscle that is attached to a relatively immobile part
End of a muscle that is attached to a relatively mobile part
Cord like bunch of dense fibrous tissue that connects muscles to bones or muscles to muscles (avascular)
Broad, flat, sheet like connective tissue that connects muscles to a bone or another muscle
Skeletal Muscle Fiber
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasma, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Cell membrane of skeletal muscle fiber
Fluid inside the cell (cyotoplasm) of skeletal muscle fiber
Sarcolplasmic Reticulum
Stores calcium (Ca+), needed for muscle contraction
Rachet Theory
How muscles contract, also known as the Sliding Filament Therory, 7 steps for a muscle contraction
Rachet Theory #1
Nerve impulse is sent
Rachet Theory #2
Calcium (Ca+) ions dumped and flood the sarcomere
Rachet Theory #3
Active sites of actin are exposed
Rachet Theory #4
Actin grab myosin and form a cross bridge
Rachet Theory #5
Bend and pull until they "break off:
Rachet Theory #6
Grab another active site of actin
Rachet Theory #7
Process continues as long as Ca+ ions are present
Types of Muscle Contractions
Tonic, Isotonic, Isometric, Concentric, Eccentric
Tonic (tone)
Amount of contraction at rest
The length of the muscle changes while the tone stays the same
The length of the muscle stays the same while the tone changes
Muscle shortens during contraction
Muscle lengthens during contraction
Roles of Muscles
Prime mover, Synergist, Antagonist, Stabilizer, Neutralizer
Prime mover
The muscle most responsible for a particular action; It has the the best mechanical advantage/line of pull
Help the prime mover, not at a good line of pull to create the motion itself
Sits on the opposite end of the prime mover (of the joint) and has to "let go" in order for the prime mover to work
Prevents unwanted motion at a joint (stablizers do not have to cross a joint to work)
Doesn't help or hinder the motion
Naming Muscles
Size, Shape, Direction of fibers, Number of origin, Origin/Insertion, Action
Naming the muscle-Size
Large muscles= vastus, magnus, maximus; long muscles=longus; short muscles=brevis
Naming the muscle-Shape
Deltiod=triangle, Rhomboid=rhombus, Trapezius=trapezoid
Naming the muscle-Direction of fibers
Rectus=straight, Transverse=across, Oblique=diagonal
Naming the muscles-Number of origin
Biceps=2 heads/origins, tricpes=3 head/origins
Naming the muscle-Origin/Insertion
Brachioradialis=origin arm/insertion radius, Coracobrachialis=origin coracoid process of sapula/insertion arm
Naming the muscle-Action
Adductor Brevis-Adducts, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris-Flexes wrist
3 Types of Muscles
Smooth, Cardiac, Skeletal
Smooth Muscle
aka-visceral, non-striated and involuntary (peristalsis)
Cardiac Muscle
only in the heart, straited and involuntary
Skeletal Muscle
attached to the skeleton, voluntary and striated
7 Steps in the Rachet Theory
1. nerve impulse is sent, 2. Ca+ ions are dumped and flood the sarcomere, 3. active site of actin are exposed, 4. actin grab mysoin and form a cross bridge, 5. Bend and pull until they "break off", 6. Grab another site of actin, 7. Process continues as long as Ca+ ions are present

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