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what do the lamina propria and epithelium form? (mucous membrane) of the digestive tract.
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what do the lamina propria and epithelium form? (mucous membrane) of the digestive tract.
what are the major layers of the digestive tract called? (areolar tissue)
muscularis externa
a region of the smooth muscle fibers
in the peritoneal cavity, a serous membrane
mucosal epithelium
digestive tract lining, moistened by glandular secretions of the epithelial and accessory organs.
pacesetter cells
presence of these allows for rhythmic waves of contraction that spread through the entire muscular sheet.
the muscularis externa popels materials through the digestive tract through the muscular contractions of what?
movements in areas of the small intestine churn digestive materials.
visceral peritoneum
also known as serosa, is continuous with the parietal peritoneum that lines the inner surfaces of the body wall.
fused double sheets of peritoneal membrane, suspend portions of the digestive tract.
the functions of the oral cavity
(1) analysis of potential foods, (2) mechanical processing using the teeth, tongue, and palatal surfaces; (3) lubrication by mixing with mucus and salivary secretions; (4) digestion by salivary enzymes.
buccal cavity
oral cavity is lined by a stratisfied squamous epithelium.
intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles
controlled by the hypoglossal nerve.
parotid, sublingual, and submandibular
are salivary glands discharge their secretions into the oral cavity.
salivary amylase
the parotid salivary glands release these, which begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
lubricates the mouth, solubilizes food, dissolves chemicals, flushes oral surfaces, and helps control bacteria. Usually controlled by the ANS.
(swallowing) has three phases. Buccal, pharyngeal, esophageal
buccal phase
begins with compaction the a bolus and its movement into the pharynx.
pharyngeal phase
involves the elevation of the larynx, reflection of the epiglottis, and closure of the glottis.
esophageal phase
involves the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter and the peristalsis moving the bolus down the esophagus to the lower esophageal sphincter.
hollow muscular tube that transports food and liquid to the stomach, through the esophageal hiatus, and opening in the diaphragm.
three major functions of the stomach
(1) bulk storage of ingested matter, (2) mechanical breakdown of resistant materials, and (3) chemical digestion, through the disruption of chemical bonds using acids and enzymes.
four regions of the stomach
cardia, fundus, the body, and the pylorus.
pyloric sphincter
guards the exit from the stomach.
the mucosa and submucosa are thrown into longitudinal folds, called?
greater omentum
the mesenteries of the stomach that hangs from the greater curvature is?
lesser omentum
attached to the lesser curvature is the medial surface of stomach.
three branches of the celiac trunk
supply blood to the stomach: the let gastric artery, splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery.
gastric pits
shallow depressions that contain the gastric glands of the fundus and body.
parietal cells
secrete intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid.
chief cells
secrete pepsinogen, which acids in the gastric lumen convert to the enzyme pepsin.
G cells
of the stomach secrete the hormone gastrin.
gastric juices
the production and secretion are directly controlled by the CNS (the vagus nerve [parasympathetic innervations] and the celiac plexus [sympathetic innervations]).
secretin and cholecystokinin
hormones that inhibits gastric secretion but stimulates secretion by the pancreas and liver.
duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum
included in the small intestine, with the ileum being the longest portion.
mesentery proper
supports the branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein, lymphatics, and nerves that supply the jejunum and ileum.
plicae circulars
the intestinal mucosa bears transverse folds called?
intestinal villi
the mucosa of the small intestine forms small projections that increase the surface area for absorption is called?
intestinal juice
moistens the chime, helps buffer acids, and dissolves digestive enzymes and the products of digestion.
secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK)
are two hormones important in the coordination of digestive activities.
large intestine (large bowel)
begins as a pouch inferior to the terminal portion of the ileum and ends at the anus. The main funcs of the LI are to: (1) reabsorb water and compact feces, (2) absorb vitamins by bacteria, (3) store fecal material prior to defecation.
parts of large intestine
cecum, colon, rectum
collects and stores materials arriving from the ileum, The ileum opens into the cecum at the ileal papilla, with muscles encircling the opening forming the ileocecal valve.
is attached to the cecum, and it functions as part of the lymphatic system.
has a larger diameter and a thinner wall than the small intestine.
colon regions
ascending, transverse, descening, and sigmoid.
internal and external anal sphincters
control the passage of fecal material to the anus.
performs metabolic and hematological regulation and produces bile by hepatic cells.
four lobes of the liver
left, right, quadrate, and caudate.
hepatic artery proper and hepatic portal vein
supply blood to the liver.
hepatic veins
drain blood from the liver and return it to the systemic circuit via the inferior vena cava.
specialized epithelial liver cells
kupffer cells
or stellate reticuloendothelial cells, are phagocytic cells that reside in the sinusoidal lining.
liver lobule
is the basic functional unit of the liver.
portal areas
hepatic triads, each lobule is hexagonal in cross section and contains six __ __.
left and right hepatic ducts
the bile ducts from each lobule unite to form and form the common hepatic duct?
a hollow muscular organ that stores and concentrates bile before excretion in the small intestine.
bile salts
break apart large drops of lipids and make them accessible to digestive enzymes.
the irritation of the small intestine by toxins or other irritants; causes diarrhea due to frequent peristalsis along the small intestine.
inflammation of the gastric mucosa
blockage of the lower part of the esophagus due to weak peristalsis and malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter.
irritation of the colon, leading to abnormal bowel function.
condition caused by the destruction of hepatocytes by drug exposure, viral infection, ischemia, etc.
condition in which gallstones are present in the gallbladder
attachment by surgical procedure to the abdominal wall, bypassing the distal portion of the large intestine is called?

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