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Nervous system
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-Sterile tissue area of the body -brain, spinal cord (central nervous system CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
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terms list

Nervous system
-Sterile tissue area of the body -brain, spinal cord (central nervous system CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
-protect the brain and spinal cord -has 3 protective layers:
Blood brain barrier
-are the cells that make up the walls of blood vessels around the brain -prohibits most microorganisms from passing into the CNS -drugs and antibiotics are difficult to introduce into the CNS when needed
inflammation of the meninges
inflammation of the brain
inflammation of the meninges and brain
Haemophilus influenzae meningitis
-Occurs mostly in children (6 months to 4 years) -capsule antigen type b -gram negative aerobic bacteria, normal throat microbiota -prevented by Hib vaccine
Neisseria meningitidis
-causes the most serious forms of acute meningitis -more common in adults -gram negative diplococci -also known as meningococcus -polysaccharide capsule, protects against phagocytosis -responsible for 25% of all meningitis cases -need to have booster shot later in life
what are the 3 layers that protect the meninges?
-Dura mater: outermost layer -Arachnoid mater: middle layer (contains cerebrospinal fluid) -Pia mater: innermost layer
streptococcus pneumoniae
-also known as pneumococcus -causes the majority of bacterial pneumonias -most frequent cause of community acquired meningitis -has polysaccharide capsule that protects against phagocytosis -produces an alpha-hemolysin and hydrogen peroxide, both which can induce damage in the CNS
-no capsule or endospore -usually foodborne; can be transmitted to fetus -not fastidious, resistant to cold, heat, salt, pH extremes and bile -associated with contaminated dairy products, poultry, and meat -causes meningitis and septicemia in elderly, immunocompromised, fetuses, and neonates
cryptococcus neoformans
-transmitted in bird droppings -fungus that causes chronic meningistis -have a very thick capsule
viral meningitis
-majority of cases in children -90% causes by enteroviruses -generally milder than bacterial meningistis -resolves itself Aseptic meningitis: viral meningitis is assumed when a patient shows symptoms but no bacteria or fungi are found in the CSF
what are types of organisms that can cause meningitis
-Neisseria meningistis -streptococcus pneumoniae -Haemophilus influenzae -Listeria monocytogenes -Cryptococcus neoformans -Coccidioides -Viruses
Neonatal and infant meningitis
-Usually the result of an infection transmitted by the mother in utero or during passage through the birth canal. -two most common causes are streptococcus agalactiae and E.coli / listeria is also frequently found in neonates
-usually resides in soil and GI tracts of animals -endospore forming -endospores are only produced under anaerobic conitions -one of the worlds most preventable diseases
streptococcus agalactiae
-most frequent cause of neonatal meningitis -all females get screened when pregnant -colonizes 10 to 30% of female genital tracts
-neurotoxin -binds to target sites on peripheral motor neurons on the spinal cord, brain, and sympatheic nervous system -blocks inhibition of muscle contraction, causing muscles to contract uncontrollably (like a muscle cramp) -death results from paralysis of respiratory muscles and respiratory arrest
-blocks neuro transmitter -caused by an exotoxin -associated with eating poorly preserved foods -3 major forms of botulism: food-borne botulism infant botulism wound botulism
Botulinum Toxin
-toxin travels from the bloodstream to the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscles -prevents the release of acetylcholine, resulting in flaccid paralysis -utilized by doctors to treat uncontrolled muscle spasms, and other conditions -also used for botox
African sleeping sickness
-transmitted by tsetse fly -fever, enlarged spleen, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain -extreme fatigue and sleep disturbances -muscle tremors, slurred speech, seizures, local paralysis -uncontrollable sleepiness during the day, sleeplessness at night -death results from coma, secondary infections, and heart damage
-also called Hansen's disease -grows in peripheral nerves and skin cells -Tuberculoid (neural) form: loss of sensation in skin areas ; positive lepromin test -Lepromatous (progressive) form: disfiguring nodules over body (losing limbs) ; negative lepromin test tissues can die off
poliomyelitis (polio)
-inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis of the limbs and muscles of respiration -transmitted by ingestion -destruction of motor cells and paralysis can occur
-slow, progressive zoonotic disease characterized by fatal encephalitis -two forms of rabies: Furious rabies and Dumb rabies -both forms lead to a coma phase -death results from cardiac or respiratory arrest

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