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The general senses
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temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration, and proprioception; receptors for these sensations are distributed throughout the body.
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The general senses
temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration, and proprioception; receptors for these sensations are distributed throughout the body.
special senses
receptors for (olfaction, gustation, equilibrium, hearing, and vision) are located in specialized areas, or sense organs
Receptor specificity
allows each receptor to respond to particular stimuli.
free nerve endings
The simplest receptors
receptive field
the area monitored by a single receptor cell
tonic receptors
are always sending signals to the CNS; phasic receptors become active only when the conditions that they monitor change.
Adaptation
(a reduction in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus) may involve changes in receptor sensitivity (peripheral, or sensory, adaptation) or inhibition along the sensory pathways (central adaptation).
Fast-adapting receptors
are phasic
slow-adapting receptors
are tonic
exteroceptors
receptors that provide information about the external environment.
interoceptors
receptors that monitor conditions inside the body.
Nociceptors
respond to a variety of stimuli usually associated with tissue damage. Two types of painful sensations: fast (prickling); pain and slow (burning and aching) pain.
Thermoreceptors
respond to changes in temperature. They conduct sensations along the same pathway that carry pain sensations.
Mechanoreceptors
respond to physical distortion, contact, or pressure on their cell membranes
tactile receptors
respond to touch, pressure, and vibration
baroreceptors
respond to pressure changes in the walls of blood vessels and digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts.
proprioceptors
(muscle spindles) to positions of joints and muscles.
Fine touch and pressure receptors
provide detailed information about a source of stimulation
crude touch and pressure receptors
are poorly localized.
Important tactile receptors
free nerve endings, the root hair plexus, tactile discs (Merkel's discs), Merkel cells are located in the stratum germinatum that are sensitive to touch.
tactile corpuscles
meissner's; detects light touch; abundant in hairless portions of the skin; lips, fingertips, palms,etc
ruffini corpuscles
heavy touch, pressure, joint movements & skin stretching
lamellated corpuscles
pacinian; detect heavy pressure; common in deeper subcutaneous tissue, tendons, and ligaments
chemoreceptors
respond to water-soluble and lipid-soluble substances that are dissolved in the surrounding fluid. They monitor the chemical composition of body fluids
olfactory organs
contain olfactory epithelium with olfactory receptors (neurons sensitive to chemicals dissolved in the overlying mucus), supporting cells, and basal (stem) cells. Their surfaces are coated with the secretions of the olfactory glands.
basal (stem) cells
stem cells; divide & differentiate into supporting cells
gustation
or taste, provides information about the food and liquids that we consume.
Gustatory receptors
are clustered in taste buds, each of which contains gustatory cells, which extend taste hairs through a narrow taste pore.
gustatory cells
cells that respond to chemicals dissolved in the saliva are epithelial cells; they are surrounded by supporting cells in taste bud
taste buds
your sense of taste so you taste something great and horrible
taste pore
opening in the surface end of taste bud where cilia is extended into from receptor cells to contact tastants (substances that can be tasted)
nucleus solitaries
The afferent fibers synapse within the ________ _________ before proceeding to the thalamus and cerebral cortex.
Cranial nerves VII, IX, X
Taste buds are monitored by these cranial nerves
taste sensations
sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and water
Tympanic cavity (middle ear)
the main cavity of the ear
auditory ossicles
the collective name for ear bones
auditory tube
the tympanic cavity communicates with the nasopharynx via the ________ _________
tensor tympani and the stapedius muscles
contract to reduce the amount of motion of the tympanum when very loud sounds arrive.
membranous labyrinth
fluid filled tubes and chambers of the inner ear
endolymph
the bodily fluid that fills the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
bony labyrinth
surrounds and protects the membranous labyrinth.
canals
provide sense of equilibrium
cochlea
provide sense of hearing
utricle and saccule
membranous sacs, whose receptors provide sensations of gravity and linear acceleration.
cochlear duct
an elongated portion of the membranous labyrinth.
hair cells
basic receptors of the inner ear, whose surfaces support stereocilia. Provide information about the direction and strength of varied mechanical stimuli.
anterior, posterior, lateral semicircular ducts
continuous with the utricle.
ampulla
the dilated portion of a canal or duct especially of the semicircular canals of the ear
cupula
A gelatin-like structure containing a tuft of hairlike sensory receptor cells in the semicircular canals.
tarsal glands
secrete a lipid rich product, line the inner margins of the eyelids.
palpebral fissure
the elliptical open space between the eyelids
palpebrae
eyelids
lacrimal caruncle
glands that produce other secretions
lacrimal gland
gland located above eyeball that secretes tears
lysozymes
enzymes that attack bacteria
lacus lacrimalis
where tears collect
lacrimal puncta
tear duct
lacrimal canaliculi
small canals leading to the lacrimal sac
lacrimal sac
structure collects tears and empties into nasolacrimal duct
nasolacrimal duct
a duct that carries tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity
lacrimal apparatus
the structures that secrete and drain tears from the eye
endolymphatic duct
passageway connecting utricle and saccule
endolymphatic sac
termination point of endolymphatic duct
maculae
In the saccule and utricle, hair cells cluster within ______, where their cilia contact otoliths consisting of densely packed mineral crystals (statoconia) in a gelatinous matrix,
fibrous tunic
includes most of the ocular surface, which is covered by the sclera.
sclera
a dense, fibrous connective tissue of the fibrous tunic.
corneal limbus
border between the clear and the cornea
conjunctiva
an epithelium; covers most of the exposed surface of the eye
bulbar
lines of the inner surface of the eyelids
cornea
the transparent part of the eyeball
vascular tunic
middle coat (tunic) of the eyeball
ciliary body
the part of the tunic of the eye between the choroid coat and the iris
choroid
vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to outer portion of the retina
ciliary muscle
the tissue and muscle that surrounds the lens of the eye.
ciliary processes
epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
suspensory ligaments (zonular fibers)
a fibrous membrane that holds the lens of the eye in place
photoreceptors (visual receptors of the retina)
Rods and cones
rods
provide black and white vision in dim light
cones
provide color vision in bright light
macula lutea
a yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision
fovea
area of sharpest vision and damages to fovea interferes with the ability to see color
bipolar cells
Recieves input from the visual receptors and sends signals to the ganglion cells
ganglion cells
neurons that synapse with bipolar cells and carry message to optic nerve.
horizontal cells
specialized retinal cells that contact both recepot cells and bipolar cells
amacrine cells
The second layer of cells in the eye. - Between the ganglion cells and the bipolar cells.
lens
focuses a visual image on the retinal receptors
vitreous body
gelatinous mass that helps stabilize the shape of the eye and support the retina.
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