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hindsight bias
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the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
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terms list

hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
precise statements of the procedures (operations) used to define independent and dependent variables research variables
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
scientific method
A self correcting process for asking questions and observing nature's answer.
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observations
involves observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
scatter plot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation.)
illusory correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect of some behavior or mental process
Double-blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participant and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participant have recieved the treatment or the placebo.
Placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
experimental condition
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Random assignment
the procedure of assigning subjects to the experimental and control conditions by chance in order to minimize preexisting differences between the groups
independant variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the effect being studied
dependant variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independant variable.
the most frequently occuring score in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and tradition shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
An inert substance or condition that is administered as a test of whether an experimental subjects who mistakenly thinkls a treatment.
Random sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

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