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Forensic Science
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Describes the application of science to law.
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Forensic Science
Describes the application of science to law.
Alphonse Bertillion
Father of Criminal Identification. He devised a system of personal identification using a series of body measurements
Identifiction by a series of body measurements
Sherlock Holmes
The character of the fictional exploits excited the imagination of an emerging generation of forensic scientists and criminal investigators
Edmund Locard
Locard's Exchange Prinicple. Under his direction one of the first functional crime laboratories was formed in Lyons, France in 1910
Locard's Exchange Principal
The theory that there is a mutual transfer of material when two objects make contact with each other.
Hans Gross
Austrian Magistrate, public prosecuter and Judge; He advocated the application of science to criminal investigation
Dr. Leone Lattes
The italian scientist devised a relatively simple procedure to determine the blood group of dried bloodstains
Albert S. Osborn
He wrote the first significate text in the field of Document examination. 1910 he wrote "Questioned Document"
Sir Alec Jeffreys
Developed the first DNA profiling test in 1984 and it was used in 1986 to identify the murder of two young English girls.
Los Angeles
The first forensic lab in the US which was created in 1923 by the Los Angeles Police Department.
Federal, State, County and Municipal
A decentralized system of crime labs currently exist in the US under the auspices of various governmental agencies
FBI, DEA, ATF, US postal inspection services
The four important agencies that offer forensic services.
Trace Evidence Unit
The application of chemistry, physics and geology to identify and compare crime-scene evidence
Biological Unit
Responsible for the examination of blood, hairs, fibers , and botanical materials
Firearms Unit
Responsible for the examination of bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types
Marcello Malpighi
The first recorded notes about fingerprint characteristics were prepared in 1686 by a Professor of anatomy at the university of Bologna/Italy. However, he did not acknowledge the value of fingerprints as a method of identification
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
In 1775 he conducted the first successful test to detect the poison arsenic in corpses
Valentin Ross
1806 he discovered a method of detecting arsenic in the walls of a victim's stomach
Mathieu Orfila
The father of forensic toxicology (1814)
William Nichol
Invented the polarizing microscope in 1828
Henri-Louis Bayard
Formulated the first procedure for microscopic detection of sperm in 1839
Dr. Karl Landsteiner
He discovered that blood can be grouped into different categories. A, B, AB and O
Dr. Walter C. McCrone
Leading figure in the field of microscopy
Colonel Calin Goddard
He refined the techniques of firearms examination by using the comparison microscope
August Vollmer
He created a forensic lab in the US in 1923 which is located in the Los Angeles Police Department and is considered the oldest forensic laboratory in the United States
J. Edgar Hoover
He was the first Director of the FBI (1932) and is credited with building the FBI into a large and efficient crime-fighting agency, and with instituting a number of modern innovations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories
FBI Laboratory
The worlds largest forensic laboratory performing over one million examinations every year
DEA Laboratory
Analyze drugs seized in violation of federal laws
The Drug Enforcement Administration (Department of Justice) regulates the production, sale, and transportation of drugs.
ATF Laboratory
Analyze alcoholic beverages and documents relating to alcohol and firear excise tax law enforcement and examine weapons, explosive devices, and related evidence
The Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (Department of Justice) enforces the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970
U.S Postal Inspection Service
The primary law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service
The three government-funded institutes that provide forensic services in Canada
1.) Six Royal Canadia Mounted Police Regional Laboratories, 2.) The Center of Forensic Science in Toronto, and 3.) The Institute of Legal Medicine and Police Science in Montreal
Scientific Method
A process that uses strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collecton, organization, and analysis of information
Brake down of the Scientific Method
1. Formulating a question worthy of investigation, 2. Formulate a hypothesis (a reasonable explanation proposed to answer the question), 3. Scientific Inquire (the testing of the hypothesis through experimentation), 4. Hypothesis is validated by experimentation, it becomes suitable as scientific evidence, appropriate for use in a criminal investigation and available for admission in a court of law

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