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deals with the structure (morphology) of the body and its parts
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deals with the structure (morphology) of the body and its parts
studies the functions of the body and its parts
Levels of organization
atom-molecule-macromolecule-organelle-cell-tissue-organ-organ system-organism
Characteristics of Life
Movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, digestion
The total of all the chemical reactions that are continuously at work to maintain these characteristics
Life requirements
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure
Maintenance of a stable internal environment
Thoracic Membranes
Heart membranes
Abdominopelvic Membranes
integumentary system
includes skin, hair, nails, and various glands, covers the body, senses changes outside the body, and helps regulate body temperature
skeletal system
made up of bones and ligaments. It supports, protects, provides frameworks, stores inorganic salts, and houses blood-forming tissues
muscular system
consists of the muscles that provide body movement, posture, and body heat
nervous system
consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. It integrates incoming information from receptors and sends impulses to muscles and glands
endocrine system
including all of the glands that secrete hormones, helps to integrate metabolic functions
cardiovascular system
made up of the heart and blood vessels, distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the body while removing wastes from the cells
lymphatic system
consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen, drains excess tissue fluid and includes cells of immunity
digestive system
made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs. It receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients
respiratory system
exchanges gases between the blood and air and is made up of the lungs and passageways
urinary system
consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
reproductive system
consists of the testes, accessory organs, and vessels that conduct sperm to the penis and consists of ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia.
Anatomical position
the body is standing erect, face forward, with the upper limbs at the sides and the palms forward
section divides the body into right and left portions
"section divides the body into superior and inferior portions. It is often called a "cross section""
section divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
a body part is above another part or is closer to the head
a body part is below another body part or is toward the feet
toward the front
Toward the back
a body part that is closer to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves
toward the side with respect to the imaginary midline
a body part that is closer to a point of attachment to the truck than another body part
a body part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part
situated near the surface
parts that are more internal than superficial parts

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