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functions of the urinary system
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remove waste fr blood, regulate bp, adjust blood volume, maintain fluid/electrolye & acid/base balance, hormonal balance, role in RBC production, regulates bp & chemical levels
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terms list

functions of the urinary system
remove waste fr blood, regulate bp, adjust blood volume, maintain fluid/electrolye & acid/base balance, hormonal balance, role in RBC production, regulates bp & chemical levels
renal cortex
outer part of the kidney, shell around medulla
renal medulla
inner portion containing the renal pyramids
renal pyramids
triangular division of the medulla, from 8-19
renal columns
extensions of cortical tissue that dips down into the medulla between the renal pyramids
renal papilla
innermost ends of pyramid
renal pelvis
expansion of upper end of ureter, lies inside kidney
renal calyx (calyces)
divisions of renal pelvis, papilla of a pyramid opens into each calyx
renal hilum
entry site for renal arteries & nerves, exit site for renal veins & ureters
renal arteries
supply blood to the kidney, large in diameter, with each heartbeat 20% of the blood enters the kidneys
renal veins
returns blood from the kidney to the vena cava
renal microscopic structure, functional unit of the kidney, consists of renal tubule & capillaries
functions of the nephron
cleaning & filtering, returning useful substances to the blood, form urine
2 parts of a nephron
renal corpuscle and renal tubule
renal corpuscle
in cortex of kidney, made up of 2 parts-bowman's capsule & glomerulus
bowman's capsule
cup shaped top of nephron, surrounds glomerulus
network of blood capillaries surrounded by bowman's capsule, high pressure within to remove/filter wastes from the blood
1st step of urine formation, takes place in the renal corpuscle
renal tubule
leads away from glomerular capsule, reabsorption of h20, nutrients & ions occurs here, 4 parts
4 parts of renal tubule
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
1st segment, nearest to the bowman's capsule
loop of henle
extension of proximal tubule, consists of descending limb, loop and ascending limb
distal convoluted tubule
extension of ascending limb of loop of henles, highly coiled
collecting tubule
straight extension of distal tubule
2nd step of urine formation, takes place in renal tubule
3 processes of urine formation
filtration, reabsorption, secretion
happens in renal corpuscle, b/p is high enough to force h20 & wastes thru
movement of substances out of renal tubules into peritubular blood capillaries, h20, nutrients & ions are reabsorbed,
movement of substances into urine in the distal & collecting tubules from blood in peritubular capillaries, 3rd step of urine formation
how much blood do kidneys filter every day? How much urine is produced?
450 gal, 1.5 quarts
how is urine volume controlled?
by posterior pituitary hormone ADH which decreases volume
structures of urinary system
ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
structure of ureters
long, narrow tubes w/ expanded upper end, inside kidney, lined w/ mucous membrane & muscular layer
function of ureters
drain urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder
structure of urinary bladder
elastic muscular organ, lined w/ mucous membrane arranged in rugae
functions of urinary bladder
storage of urine before urinating, urinating
structure of urethra
narrow tube from urinary bladder to exterior, lined w/ mucous membrane, opening of urethra to exterior called urinary meatus
functions of urethra
passage of urine from bladder to body exterior, passage of semen in males
regulatory sphincters
internal urethral sphincter (involuntary), external urethral sphincter (voluntary)
involuntary urination in young child
absence of urine
urinary retention
urine produced but not voided
renal calculi
aka; urolythiasis, kidney stones, formed by crystallized minerals, may block ureters
renal colic
intense pain when ureters are blocked
blood in the urine
enlargement of renal pelvis and calyces
inflammation of the urethra
inflammation or infection of the urinary bladder
inflammation of the renal pelvis & connective tissue of the kidney
acute renal failure
abrupt reduction in kidney function that's usually reversible
chronic renal failure
slow, progressive loss of nephrons caused by a variety of underlying diseases
reasons for variations in body h20
total body wt of person, fat content--more fat=less h20
2 major fluid compartments
intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid
intracellular fluid
largest compartment, inside cells, solvent to start intracellular chemical reactions
extracellular fluid
fliud outside cell, IF and plasma
organic substances that don't break up or dissociate when placed in h20
compounds that break up into particles called ions, influences how h20 moves in the body
electrolye particles which carry an electrical charge
positively charged ions, sodium-most abundant & important positively charged ion of plasma
negatively charged particles
number that indicates hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of a fluid
ph higher that 7.0
ph lower that 7.0
blood is too acidic-7.35, respiration decreases
blood is too alkaline-7.45, respiration increases
what are buffers
substances that prevent sharp changes in acid/base
2 types of ph disturbances
metabolic & resoratory
metabolic disturbances
imbalance of bicorbonate in blood, controlled by kidneys
respiratory disturbances
imbalance of carbonic acid in the blood, controlled by respiration
metabolic acidosis
deficit of sodium bicarbonate, untreated diabetes leading to ketoacidosis
respiratory acidosis
excess carbonic acid, caused by decreased respiratory rate
metabolic alkalosis
excess of sodium bicarbonate, loss of stomach acid w/ severe vomiting
respiratory alkalosis
deficit of carbonic acid, caused by increased respiratory rate, hyperventilation w/anxiety

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