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ionizing radiation
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when passing through the body, produces positively and negatively charged particles
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terms list

ionizing radiation
when passing through the body, produces positively and negatively charged particles
the conventional unit of radiation exposure, representing a measurement of the radiation intensity in the air
absorbed dose
the amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by the irradiated tissue
a measurement of specific tissue doses received in diagnostic applications, the absorbed dose
radiation absorbed dose
What does rad stand for?
Gray (Gy)
the SI unit for dose measurement
approximately 1 rad of absorbed dose in muscle tissue
one roentgen of exposure will result in
the unit commonly used to report occupational dose to radiation workers in the US
source-skin distance (SSD)
the distance from the radiation source to the patient
entrance skin exposure (ESE)
Patient radiation dose according to the exposure level at the skin
direct hit
refers to the breakage of a DNA molecule as a result of being struck by an x-ray photon
indirect hit
causes a chemical reaction in the water that makes up most of the cell's substance
free radicals
temporary molecules and parts of molecules that occur as the result of ionization
biologic damage
Ionizing radiation produces ________ ________ as it interacts with the body tissue
nonstochastic effects
relatively high doses, predictable, severity of the effect is proportional to the dose
stochastic effects
random and unpredictable, likelihood of effects proportional to dose, but severity is unrelated to dose
the ALARA principle
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
to reduce the likelihood of genetic radiation effects
Why are gonad shields used?
embryonic tissue
According to the Laws of Bergonie and Tribondeau, what type of cell is most radiosensitive?
a low dose, diagnostic x-ray exam
A stochastic effect is a risk to a patient undergoing
seizures followed by coma, erythema, radiation sickness
nonstochastic radiation effects may be evidenced by
5.0 rem per year
dose equivalent limit for a whole-body dose for workers over the age of 18
increase kVp, decrease mAs, minimum SID of 40inches
example of a low dose technique
use of high kVp techniques
What will decrease patient dose?
15 rads
The greatest risk of birth defects occurs when the dose to the uterus exceeds:
minimal repeat exposures, collimating closely to the part
How can you reduce radiation risk to the patient?
0.10 Gy
Conventional system states an absorbed dose of 10 rad, the new SI system would state:
0.25 Sv
conventional system states a dose equivalent of 25 rem, the new SI system would state:
0.05 rem
A pregnant radiation worker's monthly dose equivalent limit
200 rem
erythema can occur on a patient if the radiation dose to the skin reaches
dose equivalent
whole body dose
increased risk of developing a malignant disease
600 rem
At what radiation dose would death occur?
25 rem
At what radiation dose would you see the first signs of a biological effect?
Coulombs per kilogram (C/kg)
What is the corresponding SI unit for measuring radiation exposure

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