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polymers constructed by formation of covalent bonds between smaller molecules (monomers)
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polymers constructed by formation of covalent bonds between smaller molecules (monomers)
condensation reaction
joins monomers and releases water
hydrolysis reaction
uses water to break polymers into monomers
amino acids
monomers which form proteins
peptide bonds
form between carboxyl and amino groups in polypeptide chains
primary structure
order of amino acids in a chain
secondary structure
the shape a protein chain is folded into
alpha helix
helix-shaped secondary structure of a protein
beta pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypepetide chain folds back and forth. two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
tertiary structure
three-dimensional structure of a protein chain
quaternary structure
the structure of the interaction of multiple protein chains
molecules which bind to proteins
loss of protein structure to heat, pH alterations, or certain chemicals
assist protein folding
contain C:H:O ratio of 1:2:1
monomers that make up carbohydrates
six-carbon monosaccharides
five-carbon monosaccharides
glycosidic linkages
covalently link monosaccharides
two linked monosaccharides
carbohydrates made of several monomers
carbohydrates made of A LOT of monomers
three fatty acids bonded to a molecule of glycerol
saturated fatty acid
lipid hydrocarbon chain with no double bonds
unsaturated fatty acid
lipid chain with one or more double bonds
lipids with hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads
nucleic acid
store information
contains phosphate group, pentose, and nitrogen-containing base
phosphodiester linkages
link the sugar of one nucleotide to the phosphate of the next in nucleic acids
RNA surface which acts as a catalyst

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