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the study of interactions between organisms and the living and non living components of the environmnet
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terms list

the study of interactions between organisms and the living and non living components of the environmnet
the dependence of every organism on its connections with other living and nonliving parts of its environment - "survival"
Ecological model
a model that represents and describes the relationships between the components of an ecological system
the part of the Earth where life exists and includes all of the living organisms on Earth
a community of organisms and their abiotic environment
a group of various species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other
a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area and interbreed
the place where an organism usually lives
Biotic factor
an environmental factor that is associated with or results from the activities of living organisms
Abiotic factor
an environmental factor that is not associated with the activities of living organisms
Tolerance curve
a graph of the performance of an organism versus the value of an environmental variable
an organism's change in response to a change in the organism's environment
are organisms that use energy to control some of their internal conditions.
a state in which seeds, spores, and bulbs and other reproductive organs stop growth and reduce their metabolism
any movement of individuals or a population from one location to another
a unique position occupied by a species both in terms of physical use of its habitat and its function
a species with a broad niche; they tolerate a range of conditions and use a variety of resources
a species with a narrow niche
are organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions: the change as their external environment changes
an organism that can make organic molecules from inorganic molecules
production of carbohydrates through the use of energy from inorganic molecules instead of light
Gross primary productivity
the rate at which organic matter is assimilated by plants and other producers during a period of time over a certain area
organic matter that has been produced in an ecosystem
Net Primary Productivity
rate at which biomass accumulates
Organism that eats other organisms or organic matter instead of producing its own nutrients or obtaining nutrients from inorganic substances
plant eating only
eats only animals
eats a variety of things like plants and animals
a consumer that feeds on the garbage of an ecosystem such as dead organisms, fallen leaves, and animal wastes
Trophic level
organism's relative position in a sequence of energy transfers in a food chain or pyramid
Food chain
a pathway of energy transfers through various stages as a result of feeding patterns of a series of organisms
Food web
diagram that shows feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem
Biogeochemical Cycle
cycle of circulation of substances through living organisms from or to the environment
Ground water
water beneath the surface of the Earth
water cycle
movement of water between the atmosphere, land, or ocean
plants release water vapor into the air by stomata
Carbon cycle
movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into the living things and back
Nitrogen cycle
the process in which nitrogen circulates among the air, soil, water, plants, and animals in an ecosystem
Nitrogen fixation
the process by which gaseous nitrogen is converted into nitrates,, compounds that organisms can use to make amino acids and other nitrogen-containing organic molecules
Nitrogen fixing bacterium
a bacterium that converts atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia
domain made up of prokaryotes that usually have a cell wall and that usually reporduce by cell division
formation of ammonia compounds in soil by the action of bacteria on decayingmatter
the process by which nitrites and nitrates are produced by bacteria in the soil
the liberation of nitrogen from nitrogen-containing compounds by bacteria in the soil
Phosphorus cycle
the movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and back to the environment
organisms that feeds by breaking down organic matter from dead organisms

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