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a system of abstract symbols and rule-governed structures, the specific conventions of which are learned; may be spoken, written, signed; has 5 domains: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
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terms list

a system of abstract symbols and rule-governed structures, the specific conventions of which are learned; may be spoken, written, signed; has 5 domains: phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics
study of the sound system of language
the sending and receiving of information, ideas, feelings or messages
Receptive Language
ability to understand what is said so that the person can function as a listener in conversational exchanges—it provides an essential foundation on which individuals can build language production
Expressive Language
the ability to express information so that the person can function as a speaker in a conversational exchange
the rules for the use of language in social context and in conversation or the study of these rules
the study of meaning in language conveyed by words, phrases and sentences
Semantic Development
the acquisition of words and their many meanings and the development of that knowledge into a complex hierarchical network of associated meanings
the rules by which sentences are made, such forms as passives, declaratives, interrogatives, imperatives
the study of the structure (form) of words;
the smallest unit of language having a distinct meaning, for example, a prefix, root work, or suffix; for example, the word cat is one morpheme; in the plural form cats, the -s is an added BLANK
the oral expression of language
Speech Perception
a person's attention to the phonemes, rhythm, prosody, and lexical features of a language
relating to words or vocabulary, as distinct from grammatical forms and construction
refers to all morphemes, including words and parts of words, that a child knows
production of voiced sound by means of vocal fold vibration
the smallest arbitrary unit of sound in a given language that can be recognized as being distinct from other sounds in the language
Resonation (Resonance)
the quality of the voice that results from the vibration of sound in the pharynx, oral cavity and nasal cavity
the process of producing speech sounds; production of speech sounds
Respiration (Ventilation, Pulmonary Ventilation, Breathing)
the act of breathing with the lungs, which involves inspiration and expiration
Speech Chain
has six steps or links that describe the process by which brains connect to communicate
scientific study of the structure and function of language and the rules that govern language; includes the study of phonemes, morphemes, syntax, semantics and pragmatics
Prelinguistic/Preverbal Vocalizations
the sounds produced by an infant before the production of words and phrases
In child development, a term used to refer to children's emerging ability to make sense of the world around them by interpreting input, integrating this information, and then producing planned actions
the ability to identify, interpret and attach meaning to sensory stimuli
the perception of sound
the philosophies, values, attitudes, perceptions, religious and spiritual beliefs, educational values, language, customs, child-rearing practices, lifestyles and arts shared by a group of people and passed from one generation to the next
Auditory Channel
outer ear to middle ear to inner ear; hearing pathway
Neurological Impulses
signals to/from the brain
Vocal-Auditory Channel
human beings communicate by forcing air through the vocal folds of the larynx and breaking the vibrating air stream into sounds of speech, which are organized into words and sentences that are received by the listener's ears
Broadcast Transmission & Directional Reception
when speech is produced, it radiates in all directions and can be received by any listener who is in range
Rapid Fading
speech signals are transitory
any human being can say anything that is said by any other human being
Total Feedback
human speakers have the capacity to monitor what we say and how we say it
speech is specifically designed for communication and serves no other purpose
humans can convey very specific messages with words having relatively stable relationships with the people, things, events, and concepts they represent
the words used to refer to the people, things, events and concepts in human experiences do not directly reflect their referents
feature which refers to the fact that each language is limited to a finite or discrete number of sounds, despite the human speech mechanism's ability to produce an incredibly wide range of noises and the assumption that each sound produced in one or more human languages has very specific characteristics that make it distinct or discrete
humans can talk about things that are distance in time or space
one of the most important design features of human communication; humans can be creative in their communication
Duality of Patterning
although a language is restricted in the number of sounds it uses, these sounds can be combined in an infinite number of ways to produce an infinite variety of words, and the words of a language can be combined into an infinite variety of sentences
Traditional Transmission
humans have a genetic or biological capacity for language so powerful that few environmental factors can stop the acquisition of speech, although they may affect the rate at which it is acquired and they may affect the quality of the language we use


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