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George Washington
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George Washington
Judiciary Act 1789
(GW) Created the federal court system, allowed president to create federal courts and to appoint judges
Tariff 1789
(GW) Hamilton, aka 10 percent tariff, protection of domestic manufacture by tariffs
Excise Tax
(GW) a tax on certain items such as alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline
Whiskey Rebellion
(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
First Bank of the US
(GW) 1791-1811, by Hamilton, came about strict vs loose construction
George Washington's Party
VP - John Adams, SS - Thomas Jefferson, ST - Alex Hamilton
Political Party of (GW)
Federalists and Democratic Republicans (from bank)
Domestic and Foreign Debts
(GW), Hamilton, funding at a par
Funding at par
(GW)This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton's establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.
Assumption of State Debts
(GW) Plan by Hamilton meant to tie the states more securely to fed gov; states pay debt, created huge national debt, assumption bill. logrolling - one support another
Neutrality Proclamation
(GW) , the United States would not support either side in the war and Americans could not aid either Britain or France
Genet Affair
(GW), refused to give aid Washington objected to this French ministers plan to hire American Privateers to fight on the high seas for France and against England.
Jay Treaty
(GW) 1795, Chief Justice John Jay was sent to Britain to stop the seizing of American's ships but Britain refused which lead to the closing of the western posts for the British
Pinckney Treaty*
(GW) 1795 , AKA San Lorenzo Treaty, Thomas Pinckey, Spain agreed to let Americans ship goods down the Missippippi River and store them in New Orleans
(GW) Farewell Address
maintain national unity, obey principles and authority, create permanent allience but not embroil in European affairs
John Adams!
1797-1801, Federalist, issue = jay treaty, next vote = VP
John Adams's Party
VP - Thomas Jefferson SS - Timothy Pickering, John Marshall
XYZ Affair
(JA) , incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Treaty of Alliance 1778
(JA) ended
Naturalization Act
1798, (JA) Act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years
Alien Act
1798 (JA), gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US
Sedition Act
1798, (JA) , made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Midnight Judges
(JA), 1801, , The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
(JA) 1798 , These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809, Republican, split Federalist Party (Jay Treaty and Impressment hurt), against Aaron Burr, issue = Alien and Sedition Act and relation with France and England
Marbury v. Madison
1803 (TJ) , The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789
Louisiana Purchase
1803 (TJ) , Robert Livingston, James Monroe, territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804 (TJ) , an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
Embargo Act
1807 (TJ) , The U.S. tried to hurt Britain and France by cutting off the supplies they needed from America because it banned all the U.S.'s foreign trade.
Twelfth Amendment
1804 (TJ) , Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President
Non Intercourse Act
1809 (TJ), 1809 law that allowed Americans to trade with all nations except Britain and France.
(TJ) old democratic republicans who believed was of 1812 violated democratic prinapals
Old Republicans
(TJ) thought he deserted Republican principles
James Madison
1809-1817, Republican, federalist party comes again, against Pinckey
James Madison's Party*
VP - George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry, SS - James Monroe
Macon Act
(JM), 1810, The Macon Bill stated that if either Britain or France agreed to observe the neutrality of the United States, the US would resume trading with that country and continue the embargo on the other. The French soon agreed to American demands.
War Hawks
(JM), Henry Clay and Calhoun, one of the members of congress from the south and the west who called for war with Britian prior to the war of 1812
War of 1812
(JM), 1812-1815, Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (Leopard on Chesapeake) (1812 - 1815), Embargo Act
Treaty of Ghent
1814 (JM) , treaty that ended the war of 1812
Battle of New Orleans
(JM), Jackson defends city against British frontal attack, becomes national hero
Battles during War of 1812*
Battle of Lake Erie (Oliver Perry), Battle of Tippecanoe (Harrison and Tecumseh), Fort McHenry (Francis Scott Key), Battle of New Orlean (Jackson)
Hartford Convention
(JM) was an event in 1814-1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed.
First Protective Tariff
1816 (JM) In 1816, Congress passed the nation's first protective tariff. It was designed to protect textile factories, because the British were dumping cloth in the United States at bargain prices in their attempt to regain markets they had lost during the War of 1812.
James Monroe
1817-1825, Republican, John Marshall bigtime
James Monroe's Party
VP - Daniel Tompkins, SS - John Quincy Adams
McCulloch v. Maryland
(JMon) McCulloch, Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Dartmouth College Case
1819 (JMon), contract, Daniel Webster, Jurisdictional dispute between the college's president and board of trustees led to a Supreme Court ruling favoring the educational freedom of private institutions (which is what colleges are considered to be)
Gibbons v. Ogden
(JMon) interstate commerce, In this Marshall Court case, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a state monopoly and reaffirmed Congress' power to oversee commerce between states. Of all the cases that have interpreted the scope of congressional power under the commerce clause, none has been more important than this "steamboat case." The case established a basic precedent because it paved the way for later federal regulation of transportation, communication, buying and selling, and manufacturing. Today, little economic activity remains outside the regulatory power of Congress.
Acquisition of Florida from Spain
(JMon) Jackson gets Spain, praised by Adams and Monroe, not by Senate or House
Missouri Compromise*
1820, (JMon) , The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Tallmadge Amendment
(JMon) , This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Monroe Doctrine*
(JMon) 1823, , A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Sectional Tariff*
1824, (JMon)was a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods., Calhoun thought South suffered
American System*
1824 (JMon), Henry Clay, response to Tariff of 1824, program proposed by Henry Clay and others to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections. It included a protective tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.
John Quincy Adams
1825-1829, National Republican
John Quincy Adams's Party
VP - Calhoun, SS - Henry Clay
Erie Canal
(JQA). first great east-west highway, commerce and trade
Tariff of Abomination
1828, (JQA), south did it on purpose so congress would vote against it, but no, they were wrong, , Tariff with very high rates on goods imported from other countries. Northerners wanted tariff to promote own industry-Southerners had no protection.
Exposition and Protest
1828 (JQA) , John C. Calhoun wrote this in protest to the Tariff of 1828. In it, he said that a state should be able to nullify a federal law (The Tariff of 1828)
Nullification Act
(JQA), act passed by South Carolina that declared the 1832 tariff illegal
Andrew Jackson
1829-1837, (King Andrew, Old Hickory) Democrat, issue = 2nd Bank of America (Jackson and Clay), Whig Party emerged
Andrew Jackson's Party
VP - Calhoun, Buren SS - Buren, John Forsyth
Jacksonian Democracy
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
Nominating Convention
(AJ) , meeting at which a political party chooses a candidate, religious qualification dropped
Spoils System
(AJ) system in which incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own friends
First Labor Unions*
(AJ), in Philly, wanted 1) abolition of imprisonment for debt 2) free education 3) abolition of prison contract 4) 10 hour work day
Dorothea Dix
(AJ) , Activist who helped improve conditions of mental patients
Emma Willard
(AJ) , in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere
Oberlin College
(AJ) , first college to teach women and African Americans
Mary Lyon
(AJ) in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
American Temperance Union
(AJ) , 1836, It united temperance groups and distributed tracts warning against strong drink
Lucretia Mott
(AJ) , was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 1800s but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political advocacy.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(AJ) , 1815-1902. American social activist and early proponent of women's rights. Her Declaration of Sentiments speech delivered in Seneca, NY, in 1848, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's suffrage and women's rights movements in the U.S. Was also an early abolitionist.
William Lloyd Garrison
(AJ) , Wrote the antislavery newspaper, the Liberator
Horace Mann
(AJ) , late 1830s, MA, United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Tariff of 1832
(AJ) , The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections.
Force Bill
(AJ) , Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.
Tariff of 1833*
(AJ) set up by henry clay, it was a way to prevent jackson from victory. clay aptly deserves his title as the great comprimiser. it allowed for the tariff of 1832, with a 10 percent decrease every year for 10 years, when the tariff rate would be back to where it was in 1816. it was squezed through congress.
Second Bank of the United States
(AJ) , chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
Pet Banks
(AJ) , State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Trail of Tears
(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Whig Party
(AJ) reaction to Jackson against nullification,
Martin Van Buren
1837-1841, Democrat, Crown Prince, WP - Webster, Anti Mason - Harrison
Martin Van Buren's Party*
VP - Richard M. Johnson SS - John Forsyth
Panic of 1837
(MVB) , When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Independent Treasury System AKA Subtreasuries
(MVB), 1840 Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
Gag Resolution
(MVB) 18-36-1844, Strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
William Harry Harrison
1841, Whig Party, issue = avoided banking, tariff, internal improvments, slavery, loose vs strict construction, died
William Harry Harrison's Party
VP - Tyler SS - Webster
John Tyler
1841-1845, Anti-Jackson Democrat, issue = third bank
John Tyler's Party
SS - Webster
Webster Ashburton Treaty
(JT), followed by Aroostook War, 1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
James K. Polk*
1845-1849, Democrat, first dark horse, Manifest Destiny, issue - Texas and slavery, talked about "four forty or fight", Liberty Party - James G. Birney (abolition of slavery) Buren and Clay agree for not annexing Texas
Texas Becomes State*
(JP) 1845, before his inauguration
Oregon Boundary settled*
(JP) 54'40, between US and Britain, extension of the 49th parallel to the Pac Coast
The Mexican War
(JP) 1846-1848 , Mexico broke relations with USA after annexation of Texas. Also, dispute over boundary of Texas (Rio Grande or Nueces River?) Americans interested in New Mexico and California, as well. Polk sent Slidell to try and buy off the Mexicans... they wouldn't budge.Polk ordered Taylor to move army across Nueces River to the Rio Grande- stayed stationed for a while,finally Mexicans crossed river and attacked "MEXICANS" started the war (NOT). America got New Mexico and California, ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Key Players of Mexican War
Fremont - "Pathfinder" California, Kearny - New Mexico, Winfield Scott - Vera Cruz to Mexico City (ended war), Zachary Taylor - Buena Vista
Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty
(JP) 1848, US paid $15 million to Mexico, got New Mexico and California
Gadsen Purchase
(MF) 1853, $10 million land purchase in the desert of flat land for the Southern railroad completion in 1853. completes manifest destiny!
Wilmot Proviso
(JP), David Wilmot Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846), Calhoun against with his compact theory (govt. created by states)
Zachary Taylor
1849-1850, Whig, Free Soil Party - Buren (free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men), Barnburners, issue = slavery
Millard Fillmore
1850-1853, Whig, issue = slavery
Compromise of 1850
(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
Clayton Bulwar Treaty*****
(MF) 1850, Both U.S. and England wanted to build a Panama Canal. This said that if either of us built it, we'd get the builder's permission to use it and would share the profits.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
(MF) 1852, , a novel published by harriet beecher stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral (caused Civil War), Europe applauds
Zachary Taylor's Party
VP - Fillmore
Millard Fillmore's Party
SS - Webster
Franklin Pierce
1853-1857, Democrat, issue = Compromise of 1850, opponent - winfield scott
Japan Trade
(FP), Matthew C. Perry with Japan, Japan dominant power in Far East
Kansas Nebraska Bill
(FP)1854, Stephen Douglas, Act in 1854 which created two new organized territories and allowed popular sovereignty to determine the status of slavery, victory for the South
Underground Railroad
(FP) 1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Personal Liberty Laws
(FP) , Laws passed by Northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves
Bleeding Kansas**
(FP) , : (between Missouri and Northerners) was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
John Brown
(FP) , Well-known abolitionist. used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he ws tried, convicted of treason and hung... he became a martyr.
Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks
(FP) , Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets caned by Preston Brooks
Lecompton Constitution
(FP) 1857, , proslavery (Buchanan) but antislavery (Congress) The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.
Ostend Manifesto
(FP) 1854, a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S., found out, Pierce repudiated
James Buchanan
1857-1861, Democrat, Know-Nothings Party (Fillmore), Democrats (Compromise of 1850 and Kansas Nebraska Bill)
American Party
Political organization that was created after the election of 1852 by the Know-Nothings, was organized to oppose the great wave of immigrants who entered the United States after 1846
Dred Scott Case
(JB) , Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south
Freeport Doctrine
(JB) , 1858, Stephen Douglas's support for popular sovereignty on the slavery issue, espoused during his debates with Lincoln in Illinois Senate election
Harpers Ferry
(JB), 1859 John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
James Buchanan's Party
VP - Breckinridge
Abraham Lincoln
1861-1865, Republican, 2 Democrats (Douglas and Breckinridge) and Constitutional Union Party (Bell)
Confederate States of America
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861, Jefferson Davis, Montgomery, AL
(AL) , a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War, Vallandigham
(AL) , payments to encourage volunteers (North not South)
(AL) , Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
National Banking System
(AL) , Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank. (North)
Emancipation Proclamation
(AL) , Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
First Bull Run*
(AL) , 1861-- First battle of the Civil War. Union soldiers were commanded by McDowell and defeated by the Confederate soldiers under Beauregard (Stonewall Jackson)
Second Bull Run
(AL) , McClellan gets his butt kick and the South defeats North, 1862
(AL), 1862, the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
(AL), 1863 , a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)
(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle
William Sherman
(AL) , scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war
(AL) 1864, , This was the last battle of the Civil War that ended in a Union victory.It ended the war. Grant defeats Lee
Ten Percent Plan*
(AL) , 1863, when 10 percent of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the State could form a government and adopt a new constitution that banned slavery
Homestead Act*
(AL) 1862, , passed in 1862,the law offered 160 acres of land free for anyone who agreed to like on and improve the land for 5 years, companies got better land
Thirteenth Amendment
(AJohn) , abolished slavery
Fourteenth Amendment
(AJohn) , made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country
Andrew Johnson*
1865-1869, Republican
Andrew Johnson's Party
SS - W.H. Seward
Fifteenth Amendment
(AJohn) , Banned states from denying African Americans the right to vote
Jim Crow Laws
(AJohn) , Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Grandfather Clause
(AJohn) , Law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867
Reconstruction Act
(AJohn) 1867 , Law that threw out the southern state governments that had refused to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
(AJohn) , (South) delegates who went along with the Radical Republicans
Radical Republicans
(AJohn) , Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
(AJohn) northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
(AJohn) , White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
Purchase of Alaska*
(AJohn) , In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
Tenure of Office Act*
(AJohn) In 1867 this Act was passed which limited the President's power by prohibiting the President from removing civil officers w/o Senate consent. Goal was to bar Johnson from firing Secretary of War Stanton.
Thaddeus Stevens
(AJohn) , Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
Johnson Impeachment
(AJohn) fired someone who was on tenure, only republican, democrats looking for reason to get rid of him
Ulysses S. Grant*
1869-1877, Republican, bloody shirt (blamed south for civil war), Liberal Republicans (Horace Greeley)
Ulysses S. Grant's Party
VP - Schuyler Colfax, Henry Wilson SS - Hamilton Fish
Liberal Republicans*
(USG) , wanted to end Reconstruction, sought honest government, and the riding of "grantism', so they nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley, hoping that Grant would be defeated if they united against him. But Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.
Laissez Faire
(USG) , the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
First Continental Railroad
(USG) Central Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific, Irish and Chinese, meets at Promontory Point, Utah
Central Pacific Railroad
(USG), A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Irish immigrants
Union Pacific Railroad*
(USG) , railroad that started in Omaha, Nebraska and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah; hired Chinese immigrants
Credit Mobilier*
(USG) , 1872, This was a fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using govn't funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members
Whiskey Ring
(USG) , head John McDonald, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Tweed Ring
(USG) , the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly "Boss" Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper's Weekly
Panic of 1873
(USG) , Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
Alabama (Geneva Tribunal)
*1869-1872, Seward negotiates with England on recovering damages from Civil War, Treaty of Washington 1871, solved dispute over fisheries, boundaries, and Alabama
Rutherford B. Hayes
1877-1881, Republican, against Tilden (played role to crush Tweed Ring), ended Reconstruction through election bargain
Rutherford B. Hayes's Party
VP - William A. Wheeler
Bland Allison Act*****
(RBH) 1878 , 1878 law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices, no less than $2 million and no more than $4 million
Indian Removal Bill
(RBH), put down of Sioux uprising in Minnesota and the Dakota (last tribe)
James A. Garfield
1881, Republican, Greenback Labor Party, Republican - protective tariff, Democrats - revenue tariff, shot by Julius Guiteau (mental unstable, thought unfair spoils system)
James A. Garfield's Party
VP - Arthur, SS - James G. Blaine
Greenback Labor Party
(JG) Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers w/ program for improving labor
Chester A. Arthur
1881-1885, Republican, Civil Service Reform, merit system
Merit System*
(CAA), A system of public employment in which selection and promotion depend on demonstrated performance rather than political patronage.
Civil Service Reform
(CAA) , Congress took action in the late 19th century to protect ethical politicians and create standards for political service; including, a civil service test for those seeking a job in government.
Pendleton Act*
(CAA) , Bill signed into law by Arthur that ends patronage and institutes a meritocratic job-seeking system for civil service
Strong Navy
Grover Cleveland
1885-1889, Democrat, "Grover the Good", issue - civil service reform, tariff, monopolies, against Blaine "The Plummed Knight"
Grover Cleveland's Party*
(GC) VP - Thomas Hendricks
(GC) , a group within the Republican party who could not accept Blaine and supported the Democrats
(GC) , Bosses of Republic political machines who practiced patronage and elected officials due to status not experience.
Mills Bill*
(GC) 1887, lowered tariff and put some goods on the free list, failed
Social Changes during (GC)
more industrial nation, child labor soared
Knights of Labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
Haymarket Riot**
(GC)1886,, A planned strike by the Knights of Labor results in police confrontation and a bomb
Granger Laws
(GC) , Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Oliver H. Kelley*
(GC), considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange"). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.
Munn v. Illinois
(GC) , 1876; Munn, a partner in a Chicago warehouse firm, found guilty by an Illinois court of violating the state for fixing maximum charges for storage of grain. The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v. Illinois
(GC), can't have state boards to regulate interstate railroads, weakening Grangers
Interstate Commerce Act
(GC) 1887, a law that made a federal Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices
Benjamin Harrison
1889-1893, Republican, issue - tariff
Benjamin Harrison' Party*
VP - Morton, SS - Blaine
Sherman Antitrust Act
(BH) , 1890 First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
McKinley Tariff
(BH) , 1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history, first time farmer products on productive list
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
(BH) 1890 , In 1890, an act was passed so that the treasury would by 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly and pay those who mined it in notes that were redeemable in either gold or silver. This law doubled the amount of silver that could be purchased under the Bland-Allison Law of 1878.
Alfred Mahan
(BH) , 1890, wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
Populist Party
(BH) , Founded 1891 - James B. Weaver, problem was overproduction, called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
Grover Cleveland 2nd*
1893-1897, Democract, issue - tariff, against Harrison, supported gold standard and sound money
Grover Cleveland 2nd Party
VP -Adlai E. Stevenson SS - Richard Olney
Panic of 1893
(GC2), Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Hawaiian Incident
(GC2) 1893, Queen Liliuokalani had Hawaii, Americans wanted land to grow sugar, Queen was depost, US govt petitioned to annex Haiwaii, but Cleveland against it, did it in favor of Queen, but it was annexed anyways in 1898
Venezuelan Boundary Dispute
(GC2) 1895, Guiana and Venezula in conflict with each other (discovery of gold), Cleveland called for arbitration, The US determined to enforce the Monroe Doctrine by itself, without relying on the British (got most of the land) navy.
Problem of the Gold Reserve
(GC2) ppl used cheaper money (silver) and kept sounder money (gold), soon with the repeal of the Sherman SIlver Purchast Act, gold came into the Treasury, this profited bankers
Wilson Gorman Tariff*****
(GC2) 1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program
Pullman Strike
(GC) 1894, , Strike of 1894. Eugene V. Debs organized the American Railway Union (150000 members). Maintained a company town, and when the Depression hit, wages were cut one third, but the rent and living expenses remained the same. Strikers overturned Pullman cars, paralyzed railway traffic from Chicago to Pacific Coast. Eventually, bayonet militia came in from Washington from Cleveland himself. Strikers were imprisoned without jury trials. He was charged since he interfered with mailing service, The beginning of the end of company towns. People who helped keep law and order was Mayor Hopkins and Governor Altgeld
American Federation of Labor
(GC2) , Samuel Gompers, a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
William McKinley
1897-1901, Republican, supported gold standard, protective tariff, and Hawaiian Islands, against William Bryan (The Great Commoner), assassinated
William McKinley's Party*
VP - TR SS - John Hay
Klondike Gold Rush*
(WMc) occurred in the Yukon Territory in 1897 after gold was discovered there
Spanish American War
(WMc) , an 1898 conflict between the united states and spain, in which the united states supported cubans' fight for indepedence. started because of yellow journalism (Hearsts NY and Pulitzer's NYW) and the explosion of U.S.S. maine
Teller Resolution*
(WMc) Congress granted the presiden the power to liberate Cuba, stating that the United States intended only to free Cuba from tyranny
Theodore Roosevelt
(WMc) Assistant Secretary of Navy, Rough Rider (helped him gain fame after San Juan Hill), instructed Commodore Dewey to attack Philippines
Commodore Dewey
(WMc) , surprise victory over the Span in Spanish- American War in the Philippines
Treaty of Paris 1898
(WMc) , The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
Foraker Act of 1900
(WMc) Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov't and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more
Emilio Aguinaldo*
(WMc) Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743), USA developed Jones Act and Tydings McDuffie Act
Jones Act
(WW) 1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
Tydings McDuffie Act
(FDR) 1934, provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines.
Platt Amendment
(WMc) 1) Cuba makes no treaty with others if in endangers independence 2) can't borrow money if they can't pay back 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US has navy there
Insular Cases
(WMc) , These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos. It was congress who had the power
Open Door Policy*
(WMc), Caleb Cushing said US had right of China, John Hay , A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Boxer Rebellion
(WMc) , A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Theodore Roosevelt
1901-1909 Republican, crushed trust, square deal, patriotism, felt for the people
Theodore Roosevelt's Party
VP - Charles W. Fairbanks SS - John Hay, Elihu Root
Panama Canal
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Hay Pauncefote Treaty
(TR) , negotiations with Colombia, six mile strip of land in Panama, $10 million, US could dig canal without British involvement
Hay Bunau Varillia Treaty
(TR) Panama allowed US a 10 mile strip of land, work down under the army of Colonel Gorgas and direction under Colonel Goethals
Square Deal
(TR) , teddy roosevelts campaign slogan, expressed his beleif that the needs of workers, buisness, and consumers should be balanced and called for limiting power of trusts, promoting public health and safety and improving working conditions
Coal Strike
(TR), 1902, , Coal mines of Pennsylvania. 140,000 workers, many illiterate immigrants had been frightfully exploited and accident plagued. Demanded a 20% increase in pay and reduction of the working day from 10 to 9 hours. Mine owners refused to negotiate., TR threatens to bring in troops, then they listened
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
(BH) Authorized the President to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves
Newlands Act (Reclamation Act)
(TR) 1902 irrigation projects for western states
Drago Doctrine*****
(TR) 1902 No nation should use force to collect debts unless debtor nation refused arbitration, Luis Drago
Roosevelt Corollary
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Portsmouth Treaty
(TR) , 1905, Roosevelt and representatives from Russia and Japan work out treaty, Japan takes over Korea, Roosevelt wins Nobel Peace Prize
Gentlemen's Agreement
(TR) , 1907 Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Root Takahira
(TR) Japan recognized American power in Phillippines and US recognized Japan's power in Manghuria and Korea
Algeciras Conference
(TR) alliance (germany, austria, and italy),1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to "encircle" Germany and prevent their development as a world power
Hague Conference
(TR) , 1899 (first under McKinley) conference at which the Great Powers discussed arms reduction, demonstrated internationalism
Hepburn Act
(TR) 1906, , Gives the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power
Pure Food and Drug Act
(TR) 1906 , 1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Upton Sinclair
(TR) , muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Lincoln Steffens
(TR) , United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936)
(TR) law must be signed by designated percentage of voters then submitted to state legislature
(TR) passed only by being referred to the voters
(TR) dismissal of elected or appointed offical
Direct Primary
(TR) run for office may circulate a petition and get the required number signatures, voters a more direct role in govt
William H. Taft
1909-1913, Republican, issue - conservation policies, antitrust laws, tariff, against Bryan
William H. Taft's Party
VP - James S. Sherman
Payne Aldrich Tariff
(WT) 1909, , Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy
(WT) Pinchot found out that Ballinger had taken a series of 'no-bid' contracts out (to friends, with the promise of substantial kickbacks to Ballinger) companies intent on mining coal on federally protected land. Pinchot went to Taft, Teddy Roosevelts hand picked successor, and informed him. Taft basically told Pinchot that it was ok, and that the contracts would be allowed to stand. This caused a heated argument between Pinchot and Taft with Pinchot getting fired by the President.
Mann Elkins Act*
(WT) 1910, gave right to prevent new rates if challenged in courts, communication now regulate directly by the Interstate Commerce Commission
Woodrow Wilson*
1913-1921, Democrat, emerged of the Progressive Republicans (Leader was Robert M. La Follette)
Woodrow Wilson's Party
VP - Thomas R. Marshall SS - William J. Bryan, Robert Lansing
Progressive Republicans
aka National Republican Progressive League led by Robert M. La Follette, under (WW)
Sixteenth Amendment
(WW) , The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.
Seventeenth Amendment
(WW) , direct election of senators
Eighteenth Amendment!
(WW) , banned the sale of alcohol in 1919, in comes in the Volstead Act
Volstead Act
(WW), implemented the 18th Admendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%, but then comes the speakeasies
Nineteenth Amendment
(WW) , granted women the right to vote in 1920 (Susan B Anthony started campaign)
Susan B. Anthony
leader of woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions
Women's Suffrage
(WW) , National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women's suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment, women also began to replace men in industries during the war
Underwood Tariff*
(WW) 1913 , Imposes an income tax and actually does lower the tariff from 40% to 25%, fixing Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Federal Reserve System
(WW) 1913 , independent agency in the federal executive branch. Established under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve System ("Fed") is the central bank of the United States. One of the most powerful agencies in the government, it makes and administers policy for national credit and monetary policies. The Fed supervises and regulates bank functions across the country, thus maintaining a sound and stable banking industry, able to deal with a wide range of domestic and international financial demands
Federal Reserve Act*
(WW) , response to Panic , Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
Federal Reserve Board
(WW) , A seven-member board that sets member banks reserve requirements, controls the discount rate, and makes other economic decisions.
Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
Clayton Antitrust Act*
(WW) 1914, New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions, also made labor unions not dependent on antilaws
Dollar Diplomacy
(WT) , President Taft's policy of building strong economic ties to Latin America. (Nicaragua, DR, Haiti, Virgin Islands)
ABC Powers
(WW) 1914 Argentina,Brazil,Chile offered to negotiate dispute between US and Mexico
Zimmermann Note
(WW) , 1917, a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side
(WW), British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons US decided to join the war.
Sussex Pledge
(WW) , A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning, Germany block promise
Liberty Loans
(WW) , War bonds to help fund the war
Adamson Act
(WW) , 1916; established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime
Esch Cummins Act*
(WW) 1920, railroads given to private operations, now US digresses from railroad and more into automobiles and ships
War Industries Board
(WW) , Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc.
Food Administration
(WW) , This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
Fuel Administration!!!
(WW) , Harry Garfield, Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays." The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Great Migration
(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Fourteen Points
(WW) 1918, program for world peace, freedom of seas, removal of barriers to international trade, reduction of armaments
American Expeditionary Forces
(WW), The Us forces led by General John Pershing who fought with the allies in Europe during WW1
Treaty of Versailles
(WW) 1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Selective Service Act
(WW) , established a military draft in the United States
Warren G. Harding*
1921-1923, Republican, against League of Nation, first time women vote, "Ohio Gang"
Warren G. Harding's Party
VP - Coolidge SS - Hughes
Washington Conference
(WH), was a military conference called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia.
Five Power Pact
(WH) , (maintain status quo) An agreement on ship ratios between the US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. For every five ships the US had, Britain would have five, Japan would have three, and France and Italy would each have 1.67. The major Pacific naval powers—Britain, Japan, and the United States—with some specific exceptions, agreed not to increase fortifications on their Pacific bases. This provision was included to help Japan overcome its reluctance to accept a smaller naval role.
Four Power Pact
(WH) , An agreement made by the United States, Britain, France, and Japan to not seek further Pacific expansion or increased naval strength in the region. The countries also agreed to respect the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement. The signatories agreed to consult each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions
Nine Power Pact
(WH) , Signed by the United States, France, Great Britain, Japan, Italy, Belgium, China, Netherlands, and Portugal. This treaty, created during the Washington Naval Conference, was third in a set of three treaties created during the conference. These treaties were all ways that President Harding tried to keep the Untied States isolated. The Treaty made the open door policy international law. The United States and Japan replaced Great Britain and Russia as major powers in the south Pacific
Fordney McCumber Tariff**
(WH) 1922, This tariff raised the tax on imports to its heights level- 60%
Calvin Coolidge
1923-1929, Republican platform - Fordney, membership in World Court, prevent war, limitation of armaments
Calvin Coolidge's Party
VP - Charles G. Dawes SS - Frank Kellogg
Teapot Dome
(CC), a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Veterans' Bureau Scandal
(CC) Colonel Forbes goes to jail for conspiring to sell narcotics, liquor, and other government property
Oil in Mexico
(CC) now Mexico saying the mineral wealth belonged to there govt, America agreed as long as their property rights weren't disturbed, Obregon become President, then Calles, (CC) sends Morrow to settle dispute
Kellogg Briand Treaty
(CC) 1928 by Frank Kellogg, pledge to reject war as international policy
Herbert Hoover
1929-1933, Republican, "rugged individualism", first time Catholic runs for president (Alfred E. Smith), "pump priming"
Herbert Hoover's Party
VP - Charles Curtis SS - Henry L. Stimson
Pump Priming
(HH) the spending of government funds in commercial enterprises, to stimulate the national economy
McCarran Walter Act*
(HH) 1929 , immigration law that discriminated against Asians and south Europeans
National Origins Act
(CC) 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890. It excluded immigration of Asians, first was from 3%
Immigration Act of 1965
(LBJ) Established new immigration system that allowed more immigrants into the U.S.
Great Depression
(HH) , starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting, HH was blamed for it
Federal Farm Board
(HH) , Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(HH) , it gave more than $1 billion of government loans to railroads and large businesses
Relief and Construction Act*
(HH) $3 billion towards public works of a self-liquidating type (once completed, would bring revenue to pay for itself)
Hawley Smoot Tariff
(HH) 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
Franklin Roosevelt
1933-1945, Democrat, "forgotten man," broke two term rule, platform - prohibition, help farmers, prevent fraud, balanced budget, decrease public spending, third election - two groups: "Defend America by Aiding the Allies" and "America First"
Political Action Committee
(FDR), committee formed by a special-interest group to raise money for their favorite political candidates
20th Amendment
(FDR) , change of dates for start of presidential/congressional terms
21st Amendment
(FDR) , 1933, repeal of prohibition
New Deal
(FDR) , , President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM
Emergency Banking Relief Act
(FDR) 1933 , gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened., HUNDRED DAYS STARTS
Federal Securities Act
(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds
Gold Standard abandoned and turn to silver
1933 (FDR)
Banking Acts
(FDR) 1933, 1935 , AKA (Steagall Act) June 16. Separated commercial from investment banksing (recently overturned), established FDIC*** (Federal Deposit Insurance Corp) which guarantees deposits.
Works Progress Administration
(FDR) WPA 1935, , May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Public Works Administration
(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
Home Owners Loan Act
(FDR) 1934, refinancing mortgages at lower rates, preventing foreclosure of home mortgages
National Housing Act
(FDR) 1934 , June 28, 1934- It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. It was designed to stop the tide of bank foreclosures on family homes, it instead gave loans
National Housing Act #2
(FDR) 1937 , 1937-Wagner=Sponser. Rasied $500mill for urban slum clearance & public housing projects
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.
U.S v. Butler
(FDR) 1936 as a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional.
National Labor Relations Act
(FDR) A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations. *, Made sure workers were treated and payed well and not getting abused by their business. *this law created the National Labor Relations Board to enforce the law and supervise shop elections
National Industrial Recovery Act
(FDR) 1933, focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA, established Public Works Administration and National Recovery Administration to help economic recovery from Great Depression; NRA was ruled unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US
Civilian Conservation Corps
(FDR) 1933, , March 31, 1933; unemployment relief act; hired young men for reforestation programs, firefighting. flood control, spawn drainage, etc;
National Youth Administration
(FDR) , (NYA)1935, provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs
Tennessee Valley Authority!*
(FDR) 1933, , A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Roosevelt Court Reorganization
(FDR) 1937, add. judge for every justice still on Court at age 70, until number reached 15., Senate killed the Court Reorganization Bill, but (FDR) appointed 7 judges
WW2 People
(FDR) Hitler, Mussolini (Axis with H), Winston Churchill, SW - Stimson, SN - Knox, (FDR), MacArthur
(FDR) , "Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
Stimson Doctrine
(FDR) 1932, , 1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
Neutrality Act 1935
(FDR) , reaction from Italy's act on Ethopia, no selling arms, The 1935 act, signed on August 31, 1935, imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. It also declared that American citizens traveling on warring ships traveled at their own risk. The act was set to expire after six months
Neutrality Act 1936
(FDR) forbade loans or credit for belligerents
Neutrality Act 1937
(FDR) The Neutrality Act of 1937, passed in May, included the provisions of the earlier acts, this time without expiration date, and extended them to cover civil wars as well. Further, U.S. ships were prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations, however private ships can come at on risk
Quarantine Speech*
(FDR) 1937, , The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan's invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.
Panay Incident
(FDR) Dec. 12, 1937, The Panay incident was when Japan bombed a American gunboat that was trying to help Americans overseas. This greatly strained U.S-Japanese relations and pushed the U.S further away from isolationism even though Japan apologized.
Neutrality Act of 1939
(FDR) European democracies might buy American war materials on a "cash-and-carry basis"; improved American moral and economic position
Battle of Britain
(FDR) 1940, German air forces invaded Britain but the British Royal Air Force drove them out with the help of the new invention radar that let them know where the German planes were
Selective Service Act*
(FDR) 1940, first peace time draft, 21 through 35 years old
Lend Lease Act*
(FDR) , 1941 March; Congress' act which allied the president to lend or sell war materials to any country he deemed vital to that country's defense, had to return things though, Taft was against, used "gum theory"
Atlantic Charter
(FDR) 1941, met on a boat, FDR and Chuchill meeting that stated that condemned aggression, affirmed national self-determination, and endorsed the principles of collective security and disarmament.
Pearl Harbor!
(FDR) , 1941 United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Douglas MacArthur
(FDR), surrender the Phillippines during WWII, He was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945. After World War II, MacArthur was put in charge of putting Japan back together. In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination.Allied commander and five star general in the U.S. army. He headed the U.S. army in Japan and Korea but was fired by Truman for questioning the actions of his superiors in the midst of the Korean war.
Battle of Midway*
(FDR) , U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
(FDR following death) nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Dwight Eisenhower
(FDR) United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy, Casablanca and the defeat of Nazi Germany
(FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
Operation Overload
(FDR) , Name given to the planned Allied invasion of France
United Nations
(FDR) an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Moscow Conference*
1943, (FDR), US, GB, and USSR, talked about principle of sovereign
Tehran Conference*
(FDR) December, 1943, a meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace
Bretton Woods Conference
1944, (FDR) , The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
Yalta Conference
(FDR) 1945, want quick end to war "The Big Three" FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War, Stalin broke promise on free elections and representative govt.
San Francisco Conference
(FDR) 1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the "United Nations" Charter.
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Harry S. Truman
1945-1953, Democrat, favored civil rights, parties - States' Rights Party (dixiecrats), Progressive Party
Harry S. Truman's Party
VP - Alben W. Barkley, SS - George C Marshall, Dean Acheson
Dixiecrats (States' Right Party)*
(HT) Southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party, leader is Governor Strom Thurmond
Progressive Party*
led by Henry Wallace, wanted to expand New Deal and good relatiosn with USSR.
Taft Hartley Act
(HT) 1947, , The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947. When it was passed by Congress, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. The act forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party. This aspect of the act was upheld by the Supreme Court on 8th May, 1950.
Presidential Succession Act*
(HT) , allowed for the speaker of the house to take over as president if there is no vice president
International Military Tribunal*
(HT) Robert Jackson, defined crime as something against - peace, humanity, and international law
Cold War
(HT) 1946-1988, Churchill said it was a "iron curtain" between eastern and western Europe, A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years, US against Communism (containment)
(HT) , the policy designed to keep the Soviet Union from expanding its power
Iron Curtain
(HT) , Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations
Truman Doctrine
(HT) , 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
The Marshall Plan
(HT) , 1947, by George Marshall, against "hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos" a massive aid package offered by US they gave food and economic assistance to europe to help countries rebuild
Berlin Wall
(HT), a wall separating East AKA People's Republic of Germany (controlled by Russia) and West Berlin AKA German Federal Republic (controlled by Britain, France, and America) built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(HT) 1949, created in 1949 organization whose members include the US, Canada, most western european nations and turkey all of whom agreedd to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against one as a war against all.
(HT) 1950-1953, division between US and Russia, UN formed a representative govt there, NOrth Korean crossed the 38th parallel in force to South, so Truman order troops to Korea, sent MacArthur with UN forces, Mao Tse-tung (North Korea) was against the US, but MacArthur said he needed to to "end the war" offensive, but Red Chinese helped NK, MacArthur wanted to attack against but Truman said no, and MacArthur insulted Truman, so Truman got rid of him
Smith Act of 1940********
(HT) , made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the US government by force or violence
Senator Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)
(HT) , claimed he had a list of 205 people who were communist in the state department. He said there were communist in the army, that's when he went to far
Red Scare
(HT) , Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1953-1961, Republican
Dwight D. Eisenhower's Party
VP - Nixon, SS - John Foster Dulles
Adlai Stevenson
ran against Eisenhower, , The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower.
22nd Amendment
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
(DDE), racial segregation in schools declared unconstitutional
Plessy v. Ferguson
Decision that permitted segreated facilities "separate but equal"
Interstate Highway Act
(DDE), now rapid growth of suburban housing, like Levittown, NY , 1956 law that authorized the speding of $32 billion to build 41,000 miles oh highway. The scale of suburban growth would not have been remotely possible without a massive federal program of highway building. Committed to the idea of easing automobile travel, President Eisenhower authorized the first funding of the Interstate system in 1953. Further legislation passed by Congress in 1956 resulted in the Interstate Highway Act. This consisted of multilane expressways that would connect the nations major cities. Biggest public works expedenture in history even bigger than any New Deal program. The new highways eased commutes from suburbs to cities, boosted travel and vacation industries.
French Indochina
(DDE) a French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the fRench fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
(DDE), A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
Taiwan Quemoy Matsu****
(DDE) 1953, Eisenhower said that they would aid Nationalist China, but if they acted against Taiwan, they would repel
Suez Crisis*
(DDE) 1956, , when President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject. Nasser responded by nationalizing the Suez canal, which was previously owned by British and French stockholders. This hurt Europe by crippling their oil supply, most of which came from the Persian Gulf. The French and British retaliated by striking Egypt, confident that the United States would supply them with the oil they needed while they foughtwith the Middle East. President Eisenhower refused to do so, forcing the allies to withdraw their troops. As a result, U.N. troops acted for the first time to maintain peace and order in the world. Soviets tried to interfere. Eisenhown put the Strategic Air Command on alert.
Eisenhower Doctrine*
(DDE) 1957, , policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country, Arab states said to leave Lebanon alone
Summit Conference
(DDE), Eisenhower, discuss nuclear testing and disarmament with Soviet Union, but then U-2 incident, US first said it was just for meterological plan but the Russians caught Francis Powers, Khrushchev demanded apology, and violation of Russian territory, but Eisenhowr refused both demand.
1961-1963, Democrat, both parties had the platform of civil rights planks and a national health program, used president to be elected and first Roman Catholic
JFK's Party
VP - Lyndon B Johnson, SS - Dean Rusk, AG - Robert Kennedy, SD - Robert McNamara
23rd Amendment
(JFK), gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote
Alliance for Progress
(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military
Peace Corps
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Bay of Pigs
(JFK) , In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(JFK) 1963, Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war, France and China did not sign
Kennedy Assassination
(JFK) , Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas 1963, LBJ took the oath of office
Lyndon B. Johnson*
1963-1969, Democrat , signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Lyndon B. Johnson's Party*
VP - Hubert H. Humphrey, SS - Dean Rusk
Cuban Policy
(LBJ) when Cuba cut off the water supply from America, so Johnson response was supply freshwater by tankers, he worried Castro he would continue U2 spy plans but Castro said he would shoot them, so US attempted to isolate and punish but critics criticized
Income Tax Cut
(LBJ) 1964, income tax was reduced to some extent, cuts were made in govt. spending, armed forces installations were shut down
Wesberry v. Sanders
(LBJ) 1964 , One person, one vote (in redistricting for federal elections, each congressional district was to be approximately the same) In Georgia, the 5th district had 3 to 4 times more people than did the other districts.
Baker v. Carr
(LBJ) 1962 Baker v. Carr, case decided in 1962 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Tennessee had failed to reapportion the state legislature for 60 years despite population growth and redistribution. Charles Baker, a voter, brought suit against the state (Joe Carr was a state official in charge of elections) in federal district court, claiming that the dilution of his vote as a result of the state's failure to reapportion violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The court dismissed the complaint on the grounds that it could not decide a political question. Baker appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled that a case raising a political issue would be heard. This landmark decision opened the way for numerous suits on legislative apportionment.
Rosa Parks
(LBJ) , United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Martin Luther King Jr.
(LBJ), Southern Christian Leadership Conference, freedom riders, sits ins, based philosophy of Gandhi,
Freedom Riders*
(LBJ) Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Little Rock
(DDE) , Governor Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to surround Central High School to keep the nine students from entering the school, because he believed black and whites should be segregated, despite Federal laws on integration. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne Division to keep them safe
University of Missippi and Alabama
(LBJ) Robert Kennedy sent marshalls to protect the right of qualified black there
Civil Rights Act
(LBJ) 1964 , LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, had to take literacy test
Voting Rights Act*
(LBJ) , 1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
Great Society
President Johnson called his 1`version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Anti Poverty Act
(LBJ) 1964, his act of war on poverty
(LBJ) 1965 , a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
(LBJ) , medical expense assitance provide by the state goverment to needy families
Immigration Act
(LBJ) 1965, law discontinued quota based on national origin
Urban Riots
(LBJ) , large scale rioting, summer 1966 and 1967, so Pres appointed National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, said democracy to all citizen, adequate financing by both the federal and local govt.
Vietnam War
(LBJ), France tried to keep control of SE Asia, but Vietminh (Ho Chi Minh), North was Vietminh govt, South was anti communist, US helped them with military troops
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution*
(LBJ) , The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Tet Offensive*
(LBJ) , 1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Richard Nixon*
1969-1974, Republican, , he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam, American Independent Party - George C. Wallace (resistance to desegregation in public schools, wanted victory in military
Moon Landing
(RN) 1957, Sputnik by Russia, US had Explorer I, and Neil Armstrong had Apollo 11
Richard Nixon's Party
VP - Spito T. Agnew, Gerald Ford, SS - Henry Kissinger
Postal Service
(RN) establish a postal service that was efficient and self supporting, greatly lessened political interference. 1970
27th Amendment*
(RN) , regulates pay raises for members of Congress
26th Amendment
(RN) , lowered the voting age to 18
Equal Rights Amendment!
(RN) , in 1972 and 1988, constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Aftermath of the Vietnam War
(RN), 1973, when Nixon replaced American forces in Vietnam with South Vietnam, withdrawal caused hostilities between North and South in which as a result, all of Vietnam became Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (1976)
(RN), first major attempt to re establish adequate railroad passenger service
Nixon's War on Inflation(RN),
(RN), 1971, no longer held long-held position against govt controls, now prices were frozen, dollar no longer valued as gold, it became floating dollar, federal jobs cuts
New Economic Policy
(RN), Phase 1, at least 90 days, phase 2, wage and price controls for 90 day period, rate of inflation incresae of 2% to 3%. wage gains through collective bargaining were cut of labor members, which was unfair since there were no provisions for cutting profits.
Pentagon Papers
(RN), , a classified study of the Vietnam War that was carried out by the Department of Defense. An official of the department, Daniel Ellsberg, gave copies of the study in 1971 to the New York Times and Washington Post. The Supreme Court upheld the right of the newspapers to publish the documents. In response, President Richard Nixon ordered some members of his staff, afterward called the "plumbers," to stop such "leaks" of information. The "plumbers," among other activities, broke into the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist, looking for damaging information on him. r Defense Secretary Robert McNamara , revealed among other things that the government had drawn up plans for entering rthe war even as President Johnson promised that he would not send American troops to Viet.
Consumer Proection Agency
(RN), influenced by Ralph Nader, effectively protected from fraud and deceit through law, enforced by govt agencies, attracted many lawyers and others to the cause
Clean Air Act
(RN), 1970 reaction to Rachel Carson in her 1962 in Silent Spring, It describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The legislation forced the country to enforce clean air standards to improve health and showed that American was moving towards certain environmentalist measures.
Environmental Protection Agency
(RN), 1970 an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Summit Conference in China*
(RN), America opposed entrance to UN of Mao-Tse-tung's Communist People's Republic of China, however they saw Kai-shek's Nationalist CHina on island of Taiwan, but Nixon relaxed restricitons, also on trade, and US support People's Republic of and General Assembly did to, and also expelled Nationlist China, from the UN, also after Nixon returned from China, Okinawa Island was returned to Japan, but US retained its military base there.
Summit Conference in USSR
(RN), along with two top advisiors, Henry Kissinger and Gerard Smith, talked with USSR about conduct joint space teams, scientists cures of cancer and heart disease, cease from any further incidents, warships, pretty much cooperate together, and also talked about SALT
(RN), Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.
(RN), 1972, The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment, Ford becomes President
Spiro T. Agnew
(RN), , VP under Nixon, resigned for extortion and bribery charges
Yom Kippur War
(RN), , This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
Energy Crisis
(RN), following Yom Kippur War, so they planned to use Alaskian pipeline, but eventually went back to foreign
Gerald Ford
1974-1977, Republican, first non elected president and VP, he pardoned Nixon
Gerald Ford's Party
VP - Nelson Rockefeller, SS - Henry Kissinger
Ford's Asian Trip*
(GF) Ford and Brezhnev talked about continuing policy of detente, to prevent a third world war
Congressional Reform
(GF) created the seniority system to appoint chairpersons of commitees, incease the size of the Ways and Means Committee from 25 to 37, and no member of other commitees could be chairperson of two major committes at the same time
Ways and Means Committee*
(GF) where almost all important work on tax law occurs; decides whether to go along with presidential requests for tax cuts or increases, changed under Ford
Ford and Congress
(GF)relations weren't that good
Supreme Court during Ford
(GF) school pupils coannot be suspended without telling their side of the story, President has no right to freeze funds, US has title to oil
Vietnam War ended
(GF) ended April 30, 1975Nixon replaced American forces in Vietnam with South Vietnam, withdrawal caused hostilities between North and South in which as a result, all of Vietnam became Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (1976)
Helsinki Accords
(GF) first signed by Canada, US, Soviet Union, and 32 others which pledged cooperation between East and West Europe and to reduce tension associated with the Cold War, eventually Communist Party died in East Europe in 1991
Federal Election Commission*
(GF) investigate alleged violations of the law
Federal Campaign Finanace Law
(GF) (1) fines up to 10,000 for each violation of the law in a civil case, (2) PAC no more than 5000 per candidate
(GF) 1976, combined 7 railroads in NE US in an attempt to revitalize service, last ditch attempt to avoid outright govt ownerships and operation
Presidential Nominating Conventions
(GF) 1976, James E. Carter and Ronald Reagan
James E. Carter*
1977-1981, Democrat, Honest president, promised to return dignity, honor, respect back to nation and white house, peanut farmer
James E. Carter's Party
VP - Walter F. Mondale, SS - Cyrus R. Vance
Panama Canal Treaty
(JEC), decision whether extend for a considerable period or exterminate, decided the latter since he didn't want bitter relations with Panama
Camp David Acccord
(JEC) 1979, Anwar el-Sadat (egypt), Menachem Begin (Israel) and Carter (US) talked about rejecting war, and also Israel aggred to return all of Sinai Peninsula to Egypt within three years, treaty signed in Washington
(JEC) 1979, Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
Three MIle Island
(JEC) Nuclear Power Plant in Harrisburg, Penn. which failed, causing radiation to be admitted in the air
Energy Problem 1979
(JEC), Iran revolution ended oil shipment, so in spring of 1979, gas and oil priced were raised
Carter's Energy Plan
(JEC) 1979, he wanted cut down on foregin oil supports and on American reliance on petroleum, alternate sources he wanted were solar poewr and synthetic gasoline, also (1) commit funds to develop alternative enrgy sources through windfall taxes, but sadly none of these happened.
United States Embassy at Teheran, Iran
(JEC) Mohammed Reza Pahlavi became Iran "shah" and ayatollah khomeini didn't like this, shah wanted "white revolution", and shah exiled Khomeini, who later directed Islamic Republic, and kept hostages, Carter tried to help, he froze all Iranian assets in US, and also sent USS Nimitz in Gulf of Oman where 8 were killed, 2 events (1) Iran became victim of Iraq (2) 30 after RR became president, he talked tough on Carter's policy and 52 hostages were sent free.
Alaska National Interest Lands
(JEC) total area of national park doubled
Nobel Peace Prize for Carter
2002, Habitat for Humanity, helped low income families
Ronald Reagan
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman)
Ronald Reagan's Party
VP - Bush (1st) SS - Alexander Haig, George Shultz
(RR) The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side(cut income taxes), and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth, umemployed started going back to work
Federal Budget Deficit (Reagan)
(RR), hated big govt and wanted to cut taxes through offering increased defense spending, he was convinced that Soviet Union was a threat so he raised money for greater military like MX missile and Star Wars, this caused FBD (what govt took in and what it spent) of $200 billion, refused to support tax increases and refused lower social security benefits
The Budget, the National Debt , and the Overvalued Dollar
(RR) after FBD, became a debtor nation, closed gap between income and military expenditures, govt had to borrow money through selling bonds, so they borrowed from foreign nations, foreigners lent because interest rates were high in US, but Treasury only accepted "dollar", price of the dollar increased 60 percent, "strong dollar" = good, "overvalued dollar" = severe economic problems
Economic Growth and Deregulation
(RR) wanted free enterprise system, which would help pour revenue into the pockets of taxpayers, as a result, dismantled govt programs like Clean Air and Water Acts and OSHA, economic regulations Environmental Protection Agency, accused of making deals with industries, America doing well in Europe since they were good customers (huge trade surpluses), they had private saving ans invested in US Treasury bills, however downfall was unbalanced budgets
Tax Reform Act
(RR) 1986, wanted to lower taxes (progressive taxes), however impossible since lower rates was to be made up by losing previous tax loopholes. richest however didn't suffer that much, only paid 28 not 33 percent.
Stock Market Crash 1987
(RR) 1987, due to use of computerized program trading in stocks and stock-index futures by a few large institutional investors, however spring of 1988 steady growth but many jobs were lost
Labor during Reagan
(RR) 1980s, decline in industrial unions and less factory workers, but more service industry personnel, United Auto Workers and United Mine Workers diminished contracts, gave up wages and benefits in exchange for greater job security, mostly made of the middle class.
Federal Reserve Sytem under Paul Volcker
(RR), aided in keeping money from growing too fast, reduced inflation
Gramm Rudman Act
(RR) , It provided automatic spending cuts, balancing budget act
Change in the Eighties
(RR), reduced the domestic funds of government by choking off its revenue, weakened civil rights enforcement, dealt with education (Willaim Bennett), rich benefited, poor didn't, women started working male jobs, rising benefits of social security, chidren had it worse, worked part time or temporary, but few or no benefits, North - computer industry, South - decline in manufacturing
William Bennett
(RR) attention on educatio reform
Social Issues under Reagan
New Right's push for organized prayer public schools and ban on abortion ((RR) against) first female in SC, (RR) also opposed Equal Rights Movement
Edwin Meese
(RR) helped minority workers
Sandra Day O'Connor
(RR), first female on SC
Nicaragua Dilemma
(RR), 1979, Sandinistas took over, Reagan no look, so he hired Contras, but Congress didn't want another Vietnam, however later found out the US govt was in Nicaragua's harbors trying to crippe its economy, and soon many became concerned whether it would make Soviet Union mad and strain European relations, so Congress voted to cut off military
Iran Contra Affair
(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved
El Salvador Dilemma!
(RR) 1979-1990, Civil was there, US and Pres. Jose Napoleon Duarte against leftist, but then soon death squads and threat leftist, two main problems (1) ones in power supported govt. in limit and (2) used power to delay and hurt agriculture, but soon guerilla attacks stopped after US invested money in El Salvador's newly privatized electrical markets
Grenada Dilemma!
(RR) 1983, America wanted to rid the communist pressure in Grenada, Castro threats revolution in the Americas, Organization of Eastern Carribean States ask for US intervention, America remain long enough to remove Cuba supported govt from power and stop civil war, major sucess, earned credibility throughout Caribbean Basin
Haiti DIlemma
(RR) 1990s, had 30 year dictatorship, soon ends, then Bertrand Aristide overthrows with military, and UN awith US use mandate to restore constituional rule and Aristide's presidency.
Problems in the MIddle East
(RR), American Marines Lebanon suffered losses but Muslim groups, so Americans teamed up with Israeli to evacuate the Marines, Israel announced withdrawal of troops and Jerusalem conceded, Operatio nPeace for Galilee ended PLO attacks from Lebanon, Israel under Ameican pressure to improve its economic performance to get their assistance, then TWA jetliners was hijacked by Lebanese Shiite Muslim demanding Israel to relase 700 Muslim hostages, so Reagan faced AMal militamen and Party of God, soon successful negotiations with Syria and Lebanon, but now start terrorist attacks
Problems in Africa
(RR), drought and famine = US humanitarian efforts, apartheid = Americans apartheid, soon Nelson Mandela (opposed apartheid) released by F.W. de Klerk, soon got Nobel Prize and became president
Controversial Visit
(RR), 1985 Regan visits German cemetry at Bitburg, graves of victims of Nazis
Cold War Renewwed
(RR), 1985, Reagan believe SALT II Treaty favored Soviet Union - evil, soon Mikhail Gorbachev party leadership, Reagan's view caused anxieties among America's Western European allies, antinuclear demonstrations in Europe start, the Yuri Andropov proposed arms reduction that he knew Reagan would reject, he wanted to corrupt Europe's and US's relations, but that didn't really work
Intermidate Nuclear Forces Treaty*
(RR), 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed treaty to eliminate Soviet and American medium range nuclear missiles, Soviet economy cut back on military, treaty was gain for the West, more critical problem was nuclear testing, first joint reduction, on site inspection for the first time.
Was the Cold War Over?*
(RR), Gorbachev = supported political settlements in Angola and Cambodia, and took out troops from Afghanistan, wanted more open society (perestroika "restructing", glasnost "openess"), also reduced miltary spendings, Bush didn't support the programs like Star Wars
George Bush (I)!
1989-1993, Republican, campaign hit hard with ADs, he pledged to not to raise taxes and create 30 million jobs in next 8 years. team - Jack Kemp = HUD = war on poverty, William Reilly = Environmental Protection Agency
George Bush (I)'s Party
VP - Quayle SS - James Baker III
Ethics in Govt
(GB1) main issue = larges fees for lobbying and weak laws governing campaign spending
William K. Reilly
(GB1) 2000 EPA, antipollution, tighten automobile emissiosn
Healthcare Coverage
(GB1) cost of health care rose as well as those without it
Scandal at HUD
(GB1) former top officials milked low income housing rehab programs by selling their services as "consultants" to developers seeking valuable contracts, $5.7 million been paid in "consulting fees", 20 receipients, Jack Kemp investigates
Savings and Loan Associations
(GB1) A financial institution that lends money in which depositors maintain savings and checking accounts = insolvent, poor security, Bush did bailout to find more insolvents, for now insurance provided by Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
Resolution Trust Corporation
(GB1) managed the assets and liabilities of institutions that became insovlent between 1989 and 1992.
War on Drugs
(GB1), William Bennett as there was a dramatic increase in drug use, and demand for illegal drugs, especially "crack" cocaine, political figures of both parties spoke heatedly about the need for a "war on drugs", but government efforts to stop drug imports and reduce demand had little effect.
Supreme Court Appointments under (GB1)
SC nominate = David H Souter, first black on Court retired = Thurgood Marshall, another Clarence Thomas, alleged of harrasment by Anita Hill
Hurrican Andrew
(GB1) 1992, delayed so critizied Federal Emergency Managment Agency (FEMA)
Los Angeles Riots
(GB1) , Outbreak of violence in 1992 caused by the acquittal of four white policemen of beating an African American = Rodney King, motorist in Los Angeles
Peace in Nicaragua
(GB1) 5 central american countries end the civil war their, violeta chamotto won presidency over sadinistas in 1990, now free to farm land
Panama and Noregia
(GB1) after Omar Torrijos comes dominating Manuel Noriega, charged by US for drug trafficking, US sanctions attempted military coup (Operation Just Cause, largest since Vietnam), Noriega fled and surrendered
Operation Just Cause
(GB1) Dec.1989;Bush's invasion of Panama
End ot the Cold War
(GB1) was between end of WWII (1945 to 1990), two major wars in between were Korean and Vietnam, Gorbachev destroy Brezhnev policy (use miltary to keep Communism), US and Russia stop missile on each other
Persian Gulf War
(GB1), 1991, a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
Operation Desert Shield
(GB1) Bush place embargo on Iraq, put miltary in Saudi, West Europe and Arabs now against Iraq
Operation Desert Storm
(GB1) , Deadlines pass and Sadam doesnt move. Op desert shield becomes operation desert storm. Phases of the war = 1-air attack on Sadam 2-troops push him out of Kuwait.
Arab Israeli Peace Talks
(GB1) Israel and Arab Nations peace talks, in 1993 Oslo, Norway, PLO (arafat) promise peace with Israel (rabin), israel offer west bank on condition that Arafat commitment to losing side in Gulf war, extremists opposed peace, el-Sadat assassinated, Rabin killed
Aid To Somalia
(GB1) civil war, UN peacekeeping mission, US forces limited humanitarian, Bush Adminstration rejected disarm warrin factiosn and pressed for negotiations, later turned over control to UN, results, back to fighting
1992 - what went wrong (GB1)
(GB1) American economy favored powerful not middle class, natioanal debt, employment fell, forced into low paying jobs, losing benefits of pensiosn and health, black and hispanic = hit hardest
William Jefferson Clinton
1993-2001, youngest to be reeelected, Democrat ever since FDR, universal healthcare, higher taxes on wealthy, cut federal budget deficit, freedom choice of abortion = success
Clinton Team
(WJC) first pres giving power position to women (H. Clinton = healthcare) and Gore = environment
Family and Medical LeaveAct 1993
(WJC) company with more than 50 employees, allow 12 weeks of unpaid keave
(WJC) although 20th anniversay of Roe v. Wade said constitutional right to abortion against abortion by signing memoranda
Brady Bill
(WJC) 1993; handgun violence prevention act; legislation that established a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases
Budget Priorities
(WJC) cut federal deficit, edu. for the poor (operation head start), inc. energy taxes, increase income taxes on upper classes, min. wage raised, did not act on health care, Kennedy Kassebaum bill (change jobs doesn't lose med. insurance, cannot be denied based on preexisting condition), did little to hasten economic and provide better jobs.
Campaign Finance Reform
cleaning up way they are financed, house campaign skyrocketed, (PAC pays half), 2 distortions = 1) predominance of politlcal influence disprotionate to real number 2) soft money (Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.)
campaign money mess
(WJC) both parties accused of illegal practices, (violating = allowing foreign influence in US elections) hard money (campaign gifts to individual candidates) should be reported to federal election commission
Supreme Court Appointments
(WJC) Ruth Bader (first SC by Demo pres), Stephen Breyer (antitrust enforcement)
Military Base Closing
(WJC) 70 major bases were closed by Congress, politicians have no control
Gays in Military
(WJC) "dont ask, dont tell", end ban of homosexual in military, but under conditions 1) no open engagement, 2) remained quiet about orientation
Midwest Folloding
(WJC) Miss. River overflowed, so Federal Emergency Management Agency work with state and local, gave up levees, cooperated with nature more
Terrorist Plot
(WJC) garage - Twin Tower, Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Tim McVeigh and Terry Nichols, bomb Olympic Stadium because = abortion there
National Service Trust Act
(WJC) college = everyone, high school graduates volunteer to earn minimum wage, affordable student loans directly by govt.
Contract with America
(WJC)Gingrich, President can delete specific items passed by the Congress, proposed constitutional amendment to limit the term of office was ignore, imposed federal mandates on states without providing the money
Welfare Reform
(WJC)"end welfare as we know it", poor ppl move from welfare to work, welfare payments to max of five years, welfare recipients engage in work within two years
Taxpayer Relief Act 1997
(WJC) Pres and Republicans agree to balanced federal budget, provide first federal tax, expanded coverage to uninsured children, helped with 70 billion, but failed with SS and Medicare
(WJC) care come from large range of doctors and hospitals, large businesses and ogvt, trouble getting health care when needed, managed care sure patients get better, not sicker, he failed to reform nation's healthcare system
(WJC) Pres sued industry to stop marketing cigars to kids and accept great federal regulation
Evergalades Restoration Fund
(WJC) largest environmental operation ever, in Florida, buffer zones north and east
Kyoto Accord*
(WJC), multilateral environmental agreement which called on industrial nations to cut the discharge of harmful gases
(WJC) an Ame political controversy that began with the real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, [Jim and Susan McDougal] in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture. David Hale, the source of criminal allegations against Clinton, claimed in November 1993 that Bill, while govnr of AK, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, Kenneth Starr major player
Ending Nuclear Testing
(WJC) us wouldn't test unless another nation did it first
International Trade Agreement*
(WJC) Mickey Kantor, agreement in Tokyo, cut tariff to reduce consumer prices and raise living standards around the world, however didn't resolve tariff cuts on apparel and textiles, to achieve success, US had to open its border wider to foreign textiles
(WJC) , North American Free Trade Agreement
China and Clinton
(WJC) even though turmoil, us had to keep good relations with China
Aftermanth of Persian War
(WJC) UN wanted to inspect Iraq for weapons, so imposed economic santions, France, China and Russia oppose (since they had contracts with Iraq), then eventually UK and US considered ending sanctions, and Saddam ordered UN out of Iraq
Clinton's Lasting Mark
(WJC) fight against AIDS
Geroge Walker Bush
(gwb) 2001-2009, "stay the course", conservative
George Walker Bush's party
VP - cheney, SS - powell, rice "compassionate conservatism", next election "stay the course
Clinton's party
VP - Gore, SS - Christopher, Albright
The nomination of Theodore Roosevelt as the presidential candidate for the "Bull Moose" party led to the election of which of the following presidents?
Woodrow Wilson

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