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United States President 1969 to 1974, Withdrew Troops from Vietnam, Resigned due to Water Gate
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United States President 1969 to 1974, Withdrew Troops from Vietnam, Resigned due to Water Gate
b. 1923. Awarded 1973 Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end Vietnam War and withdrawing American forces. Heavily involved in South American politics as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State. Condoned covert tactics to prevent communism and facism from spreading throughout South America.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
During the Vietnam War, the Nixon Doctrine was created. It stated that the United States would honor its exisiting defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
US forces storm innocent village (My Lai) slaughter men, women & children (attempt to raise body count)
A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.
Paris Accords of 1973
This promised a cease-fire and free elections regarding the Vietnam War; following the armistice between N Vietnam and the US.
Following a series of secret negotiations with Chinese leaders, Nixon traveled to Beijing in February 1972 to meet with Mao Zedong. The visit initiated diplomatic exchanges that ultimately led to US recognition of the Communist govt in 1979.
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union culminated four years of SALT by signing a treaty limiting the deployment of antiballistic missiles (ABM) and an agreement to freeze the number of offensive missiles for five years.
attempts by Nixon and Reagan to return power to states through block grants
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
The Southern Strategy was a term that described the Republicans' move to campaign in the south after it had broken with the Democrats over civil rights. This was the beginning of the Republican domination of the south American sees today in national politics.
the Supreme Court justice durning the Nixon admistration. He was chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. He presided over the extremly controversal case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.
George Stanley McGovern, Ph.D (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. McGovern was most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global ambassador on hunger.
A break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the break-in and subsequent cover-up forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
United States v. Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive priveledge was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions
War Powers Act (1973)
Law passed after Vietnam that requires the president to withdraw troops from battle after 60 days unless he reieves congressional authorization
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
a communist organization formed in Cambodia in 1970
President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings. Key policy of Jimmy Carter's administration.
Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Camp David Accords
Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)
Iran Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
In December 1979, Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan; this action ended a decade of improving US-Soviet relations. Carter reacted by (1) placing an embargo on grain exports and the sale of high technology to the Soviet Union and (2) boycotting the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.
a condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and maintain their cultural differences. (Soviet Union and USA)
Ended the ethnic quota acts of the 20's, opened the US to immigrants from all parts of the world.
Immigration Reform and Control Act
Passed in 1986, it was an update of the 1965 Immigration Act and outlawed the hiring of undocumented immigrants, but offered legal status to aliens who had lived in the U.S. for five years. Debates over immigration policy persisted, however, as did efforts to tighten U.S. border controls.
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions
American Indian Movement
(AIM) A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973, organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
Indian Self-Determination Act
Gave reservations and tribal lands greater control over internal programs, education, and law enforcement.
Gay Liberation Movement
In the 1970s, homosexuals began an effort to win social and legal acceptance and to encourage gays to affirm their sexual identity. Despite some advances, the movement was slowed by the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s and the insistence of the military on banning openly gay individuals from the armed services.
part of the national environmental policy act signed by Nixon. EPA set and enforced pollution standards, promoted research, and coordinated antipollution activities with state and local governments. Monitored impact of other federal agencies on the environment.
A day created in 1970 about celebrating and caring for the Earth
Chernobyl, Three Mile Island
Nuclear Disasters that heightened the treat of Nuclear power plants in the United States
Clean Air Act
Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
Environmental Protection Agency
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Clean Water Act
Federal Law setting a national goal of making all natural surface water fit for fishing and swimming by 1983, banned polluted discharge into surface water and required the metals be removed from waste
Created to clean up toxic dumps such as Love Canal in Niagara Falls, NY.
Servicemn's Readjustment Act (GI Bill)
bill that gave more benefits to Veterans, allowed many to attend college, passed 1944
the sharp increase in the US birthrate following WWII, led to Suburban Growth
Resulted as a desperate need for housing arose following the war; Levittown= project of 17000 family homes on Long Island, NY.
Employment Act of 1946
Enacted by Truman, it committed the federal government to ensuring economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors to confer with the president and formulate policies for maintaining employment, production, and purchasing power
Council of Economic Advisers
A board of three professional economists was established in 1946 to advise the president on economic policy.
Committee on Civil Rights
Truman bypassed the southern Democrats in key seats in Congress and established this committee to challenge racial discrimination in 1946.
presidents could only serve 2 terms, ratified in 1951
passed 1947, tried to reduce the power of unions, Truman Vetoed
Progressive Party (1948)
Party for which Henry Wallace ran for President,
for VP FDR, ran in 1948 election as representative for Progressive party
States-Rights Party (Dixiecrats)
racist party devoted to state rights
J. Strom Thurmond
Ran for president in 1948 with the Racist, States-Rights Party
Republican presidential nominee in 1944 who failed in his effort to deny FDR a fourth term
President Truman's program of social reform, mostly didn't pass
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
nations effectivly run by USSR , used as "buffer states"
term for the cold war barrier betwen the US and USSR
Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II
US policy to stop expansion of Soviet Union and Communism
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Program of American economic assistance to rebuild Western Europe, and strength Democratic Gov't (prevent communism)
effort by the US to provide supplies to the "stranded" East Berlin, 1948-1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
military alliance of 10 of democratic countries, 1949 (mostly W. Europe and Canda/USA)
National Security Act
1947; changed War Dept -> Dept of Defense; single budget for Dept of Defense; created NSA and CIA
US - Japanese Security Treaty
ended formal occupation of Japan, allowed for US to remain to defend againt communism
American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II.
Leader of the Chinese nationalist party, anti-communism, 1928-1948
anti-communist island that broke away from China in 1949
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
People's Republic of China
China's name after Mao Zedong took over
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Kim II Sung
communist leader of North Korea, 1948-1994
first democratic leader of South Korea, 1948-1960
war between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea, resulted in a "tie" (no loses or gains)
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
Dennis v United States
Supreme Court upheld the Smith Act (1951)
1940 act, made it illegal to speak of or advocate overthrowing the U.S. government (used to prosecute communists)
Mccarran Internal Security Act
1950, communist organizations required to register, restricted thier travel and employment, vetoed by Truman
House Un-American Activities Committee
investigated suspected Communists in US, (HUAC)
Alger Hiss, Rosenberng Case
Examples of the US trying to catch communist spies, regardless of privacy issues
republican senator, accused many prominent figures of being communists "Mccarthyism"
a belief that limited government ensures order, competitive governments, and personal opportunity
religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
Political Action Committees
groups formed for the purpose of raising money to elect or defeat political candidates , They usually represent business, unions, or idealogical interests.
Roe v. Wade
'73 Supreme ct decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's mvmt
Lawsuit or claim brought by majority member who feels adversely affected by the use of an affimative action plan.
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Ronald Reagan's economic beliefs that a captitalist system free from taxation and government involvement would be most productive " trickle down economics"
Sandra Day O'Connor
First woman to become a justice of the Supreme Court, under Reagan
Budget and trade deficit
Created by Reagonomics, tripling the deficit and making us a "debtor" nation for the first time since WWI
Reagan's nickname for the Soviet Union, illustrated an end to detente
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Palestine Liberation Organization
a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information
Vice under Reagen. President during 1989-1993 Berlin wall comes down, Persian Gulf war against aggressive Saddam Hussein who invaded Kuwait.
End of the Cold War
marked by the treaty signed between US and USSR. intermediate range nuclear forces(INF) which was the first to call to the destruction of nuclear weapons. Relations with USSR rapidly improved.
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
The first non-Soviet related invasion of the US due to a drug line in Panama
As president of Iraq, Saddam maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). During these conflicts, Saddam repressed movements he deemed threatening to the stability of Iraq, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements seeking to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively. While he remained a popular hero among many disaffected Arabs everywhere for standing up to the West and for his support for the Palestinians, U.S. leaders continued to view Saddam with deep suspicion following the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Saddam was deposed by the U.S. and its allies during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Persian Gulf War
a 1991 war in which the United States and its UN allies drove invading Iraqi forces out of neighboring Kuwait
Operation Desert Storm
Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
Oklahoma City Bombing
Bombing of Murrah Federal Building. The blast, set off by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, killed 168 people, including 19 children in the building's day-care center.
a business transaction that occurs over an electronic network such as Internet
Clinton impeachment and trial
Seen by the democrats as a right wing way to overturn the elections of 1992 and 1996, it was an attempt to remove him from office. Although neither impeachment charge was upheld by a Senate majority, Not even a 2/3 majority was established. The Republicans managed to damage Clinton's reputation by making him the first president to be impeached since 1868.
two wars (1912-1913) that were fought over the last of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire and that left the area around Constantinople (now Istanbul) as the only Ottoman territory in Europe
the spread and increase in the number of nuclear weapons around the world
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
World Trade Organization
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
George W. Bush
1946 - 43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
Bush v. Gore
a United States Supreme Court case heard on December 11, 2000. In a per curiam opinion, by a vote of 7-2, the Court held that the Florida Supreme Court's scheme for recounting ballots was unconstitutional, and by a vote of 5-4, the Court held that no alternative scheme could be established within the time limits established by Florida Legislature.. The per curiam opinion was argued on the basis of Equal Protection.
No Child Left Behind Act
Federal law enacted in January 2002 that introduced new accountability measures for elementary and secondary schools in all states that wish to receive federal aid.
September 11, 2001
terrorist attacks on the united states that killed thousands of people
Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S.
Osama Bin Laden
Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957)
"axis of evil"
Named by Bush: North Korea, Iraq and Iran
Homeland Security Department
This department combined over 20 federal agencies with 170,000 employees, including Customs, Immigration and Naturalization, the Coast Guard, and the Secret Service. It was one of the largest governmental reorganizations since the introduction of the Department of Defense following World War II.
Colin Powell was an American military general and leader during the Persian Gulf War. He played a crucial role in planning and attaining America's victory in the Persian Gulf and Panama.. He was also the first black four star general and chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff.
War in which US successfully took down a dominating dictator and is currently helping them "get back on their feet".
Famous WW2 General. President 1953 - 1960. Known for ending korean war, making interstate high system, "Modern Republican"
Eisenhower's government plan: "conservative when it comes to economics, more Liberal when it comes to social programs "
Oveta Culp Hobby
1st woman in Republican Cabinet, 1st head of health and human services
Soil bank program
paid farmers to non use land, goal: decrease farm production to increase cost/income
1956 Congressional action that led to the current interstate highway system, Eisenhower's legacy
wanted to increase tensions, push USSR "to the edge"
buildup of nuclear weapons, less reliance on normal armies, "MAD"
undercover intervention in foreign gov't by the CIA, Eisenhower liked
Geneva Conference of 1954
France allowed for Indochina independence, broke it up into Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam
theory that if 1 country 'falls' to communism, many other countries will then fall too
Southeast Asia Treaty Oganization
regonal defense pact with 8 countries to prevent attack (communism)
pledged financial and military aid to any country threatended by communism
Spirit of Geneva
USSR and US conferring on peace in 1955, couldn't agree on demilitarization or Open Skies but suspended nuclear tests
Leader of the Soviet union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis. He and President Kennedy signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, temporarily easing Cold War tensions.
alliance of communist countries in eastern europe, signed in 1945
The world's first space satellite, launched by the Soviet Union. Scared US into prioritizing science and math
after US/SU didn't agree to "open skies" , US spy plane crashed in Russia, increased tensions
leader of Cuba, 1976-2008, led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; made Cuba communist, retired in 2008
became communist with Castro's Revolution, located close to the USA
in eisenhower's farewell address, he warned against too much militarisation and becoming a Military-Industrial Complex
first African American to play in Major League Baseball, marks beginning of Civil Rights movemnt
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, founded 1958
Doing away with the practice of providing seperate facilities for blacks and whites
Brown vs Board of Education
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954
Chief Justice of Supreme Court in charge of Warren Commission, also ruled in Brown vs Board of Education
Little Rock Crisis
9 African American students were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in an effort to desegregate the school; Governor Faubus tried to stop the students from attending
old lady who refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger; helped start the Civil Rights Movement and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
boycot of the montgomery bus system after Rosa Parks was arrested
Martin Luther King Jr
Main Civil Rights Leader. Supported Peaceful protests and Love. Helped to Gain rights for blacks
Civil Rights Acts of 1957 / 1960
2 civil rights laws that provided protections of civil rights and formation of the Civil Rights Commission, eisenhower signed
Civil Rights Commission
Established as a result of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960, investigate violations of civil rights
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.
Sit in movement
movement that went to segregated places inorder to support intergration
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
a United States youth subculture of the 1950s, "druggies"
egypt took over British/French owned Suez Canal, possibly preventing oil trade, after UN / world pressure, Egypt withdrew
When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks
35th President of the United States, didn't believe in segregation; president during the Cuban Missile Crisis ....president from 1961 - 1963
American first lady and wife of president Kennedy; she was known for her style and social grace; was used to create a favorable public opinion about his presidency.
Kennedy's plan, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of volunteers to bring help to underdeveloped countries
Alliance for Progress
a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
Bay of Pigs
an American-organized invasion by Cuban exiles which was defeated by Fidel Castro's government forces April 17-20, 1961
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis
Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba - JFK major acomplishment
the buildup of conventional troopsto allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
July 1963 all powers except France and China agree to stop testing in atmosphere, space and underwater
10 month investigation of the assassination of JFK
Vice President for JFK; sworn in as President when JFK died. Increased troops in Vietnam
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
senator of AZ who LBJ beat in the election
gov't run health insurance for those 65 +
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
provided education more aid to states
Lady Bird Johnson
The first lady; she contributed to improving the environment with her Beautify America Campaign.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal
enrolled in an all white college, JFK sent in troops to ensure he could go to class
preached black nationalism, separatism, self improvement, used violence, known for Malcolm X
leader of the Black Muslims militant group
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) founded by James Farmer and dedicated to the idea of a peaceceful change
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles,
1967, made by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
Gideon v. Wainwright
lawyers must be provided to poor
Edcobedo v. Illinois
police must inform arrested person of the right to remain silent
Miranda v. Arizona
made police required to state "miranda rights"
Baker v. Carr
established one man, one vote - discrict lines must show equallity for all
Yates v. United States
1st admendment protected radical / revolutionary speech
Separation of Church and State
the division between religion and government
Engel v Vitale
banned formal prayer in schools, no "official" religion
new political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism
hippies, druggies, sex
premaritial sex, homosexuality, sex in general became more common and accepted
women gained more equality and more women worked
National Organization for Women
1966 NOW called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay
Equal Pay Act
women and men have to payed the same
Equal Rights Amendment
1972; prohibiting discrimination based on sex
war that was fought between communist and deomocratic factions within Vietnam, the communist factions eventually succeeded
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
gave the president authority to enter the Vietnam War
surprise attacks on cities all over South Vietnam, hurt support for the war in the US
Hawks and Doves
americans who supported the vietnam war and americans who opposed the vietnam war
was shot and killed, had a good chance of becoming the democraic candidate for president
LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency.
gov't run healthcare for poor and disabled
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