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Marco Polo
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Italian adventurer who returned to Europe in 1295 and told tales of his 20 year trip to China; spurred others to look for a route to the East
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Marco Polo
Italian adventurer who returned to Europe in 1295 and told tales of his 20 year trip to China; spurred others to look for a route to the East
Francisco Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador who conquered Incas (in Peru) in 1532, adding to Spain's amount of silver
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish who explored Florida in 1513 and 1521 for gold
Hernando de Soto
1539-1542 Spanish explorer searched for gold in Florida; found Mississippi River
Montezuma
Aztec chieftain who allowed the Spaniards to approach his capital (was conquered)
Christopher Columbus
Italian seafarer who sailed for Spain; sighted an island in the Bahamas on October 12, 1492 seeking a new water route to the Indies; thought Americas were the Indies
Hernan Cortes
Spaniard who conquered Aztecs in Mexico 1519-1521; had two interpreters with him
Francisco Coronado
1540-1542 Spaniard who traveled from Arizona and New Mexico to Kansas; discovered the Grand Canyon andand enormous herds of buffalo
Robert de La Salle
French who went on an expedition down the Mississippi River in 1680s; threatened Spanish control of North America
Jacques Cartier
Frenchman who journeyed hundreds of miles up the St. Lawrence River in 1534
Giovanni da Verrazano
Italian who probed easten seaboard in 1524 for the French
John Cabot
(Giovanni Caboto); explored northeastern coast of North America for England in 1497 and 1498
Vasco Nunez Balboa
Spaniard who discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513 on the coast of Panama and claimed for the king all of the coasts which touched the ocean
Ferdinand of Aragon
king of Spain; married Isabella of Castile which united the nation in the late 15th century
Isabella of Castile
queen of Spain; married Ferdinand of Aragon which united the nation in the late 15th century
Quetzalcoatl
Aztec god who was expected to return from the easten sea; this made Moctezuma to allow Cortes to approach the capital (thinking that he was the god)
Bartholomeu Dias
Portugese who rounded the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, seeking a water route to Asia
Hiawatha
Iroquois leader who almost created the first North American nation-state in the sixteenth century
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish missionary who was appalled by the encomienda system in Hispaniola and called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
Ferdinand Magellan
Spaniard who completed the first circumnavigation around the world from 1519 to 1522
Vasco da Gama
Portugese who finally reached India in 1498 (probably by sea)
Renaissance
movement in Europe in the fourteenth century that nurtured an ambitious spirit of optimism and adventure (factor in age of exploration)
mestizos
people of mixed Indian and European heritage
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty between Spain and Portugal (1494) that divided lands of New World; majority went to Spain, but Portugal received lands in Africa, Asia, and Brazil
"three sister" farming
farming technique used in North America before exploration; beans grew on the trellis of the cornstalks and squash covered the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil
Great Ice Age
started 2 million years ago; covered most of present-day Canada and northern United States; transformed geography of North America; congealed world's oceans which lowered the sea level, exposing land bridge (Bering Strait) between Siberia and Alaska; as it ended, it covered the Bering Strait up
Canadian Shield
anchored the northeastern corner of the North American continent; a zone ungirded by ancient rock; first part of North American landmass to emerge above sea level; its level was depressed by the weight of the gargantuan ice mantle during the Great Ice Age
Mound Builders
Indian peoples of the Ohio River valley who sustained some large settlements after the incorporation of corn during the first millenium A.D.
Spanish Armada
130 Spanish ships that were conquered by smaller English ships in 1588
black legend
false concept that held that the conquerors merely tortured and butchered the Indians, stole their gold, infected them with smallpox, and left little but misery behind and did nothing else
conquistadores
spanish word for "conquerors"; fanned out across the Caribbean and Americas
Aztecs
Indian peoples in Mexico who shaped stunningly sophisticated civilizations with advanced agricultural practices, elaborate cities, far-flung commerce, and human sacrifices; their population reached up to 20 million
Pope's Rebellion
Indian uprising in New Mexico in 1680 in which Catholic churches were destroyed and priests and Spanish settlers were killed; it took almost 50 years for the Spanish to fully reclaim New Mexico
Pueblo Indians
Indian peoples in the Rio Grande who constructed intricate irrigation systems to wter their cornfields; dwelled in villages of multi-storied, terraced buildings
Iroquois Confederacy
closest example to an Indian nation-state in North America; developed the political and organizational skills to sustain a robust military alliance that menaced its neighbors, Native American and European alike, for well over a century
cartography
map-making; greatly altered by the existence (and sheer mass) of the New World
Native Americans
original human population in the Americas; diverse and sparse
Vineland
name for present-day Newfoundland given by the Norse seafarers from Scandinavia; abundant in grapes
St. Augustine, Florida
a Spanish fortress that was erected in 1565; the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the future United States
kiva
ceremonious religious chamber; constructed on the ruins of the Spanish plaza at Santa Fe after Pope's Rebellion in New Mexico
Spice Islands
Indonesia; one of the areas from which the luxuries of the East were exported to Europe
Moors
Muslims from Africa who lived in Spain; were brutally expelled after centuries of Christian-Islamic warfare; this sudden strength encouraged the Spanish to outstrip their Portugese rivals in the race to tap the wealth of the Indies
ecosystem
the fragile, naturally evolved networks of relations among organisms in a stable environment; the commingling of the New and Old Worlds caused its intermixing
encomienda
a Spanish system which allowed the government to "commend" or give Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to try to Christianize them
malinchista
word in Mexico meaning "traitor"; based on the name of Cortes's translator
Dia de la Raza
celebration of Columbus day in Mexico that celebrates the birthday of a wholly new race of peopl
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