1 / 45
importance of baltic grain
❮ prev next ❯
1 / 45
Baltic grain was exported to Western Europe, which caused a drop in grain prices there and led to an economic slump that lasted into the fourteenth century. It was traded to Flemish merchants for cloth.
❮ prev next ❯

terms list

importance of baltic grain
Baltic grain was exported to Western Europe, which caused a drop in grain prices there and led to an economic slump that lasted into the fourteenth century. It was traded to Flemish merchants for cloth.
families of central europe
-The Wittelsbachs, who held Bavaria,Holland, Hainut, Frisia, and Tyrol and Brandenburg temporarily; The Hapsburgs (allies of Luxembourgs) Austria, Tyrol, Carinthia, Carniola; The family of Anjou, who held Anjou (Northwestern France); The Premysls held Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, and other small pieces of land
order of the garter
Formed in 1348 by Edward the III of England and inspired by Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, they were a select group of nobles whose job it was to exemplify qualities of chivalry.
Charles IV
As a Czech who grew up in France, he was able to make Progue a multi-cultural city when he returned there to rule. He founded a university modeled after the University of Paris and was a leader in cultural rebirth. He also helped take apart the Holy Roman Empire and issued the Golden Bull regarding how it should be governed. In the 100 Years War, he fought successfully against France, in addition to being the rightful heir to the French throne.
Golden Bull
Stated that the seven main princes of the Holy Roman Empire elected the emperor, and all princes had autonomy. It was issued by Charles IV in 1356 and stated the procedure for choosing and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire: the emperor had to be elected by the Seven Princes and approved by the Pope.
Reasons for 100 years war
a) England held Gascony as a fief under the French king, and both were unhappy with the arrangement; they therefore fought over it repeatedly. b)When Flemish artisans rose up against the aristocratic merchants who monopolized the trade of their cloth at their expense, the English assisted the artisans while the French supported the merchants and the Flemish government. c) When England and France fought a second time over Gascony, Edward made it his goal to seize the French crown which the French had lied about to keep out of his hands (they said that the crown could not be passed through a female, and gave it to the closest relative of Phillip VI through male relatives).
100 years war
England was by far the more successful, and because the fighting took place in France, the country side was destroyed between bouts of fighting by roaming mercenaries. England had the advantage of recent experience when fighting the Scottish, so their tactics were modern. They also had the longbow and used artillery barrages to even up numbers in battle. It lasted 1337 to 1453.
dynastic rivalry
The families of Europe spent a lot of time and money fighting, often because of chivalry. In order to gain honor and glory, families fought each other for land and royal power. They sometimes fought within countries, such as in the War of the Roses, when the York family fought the Lancaster family for inheritance of the crown. These families had personal armies as a result of the Hundred Years War, and fought until Henry VII Tudor, on the Lancaster side, defeated the Yorks and became King of England.
Battle of Crecy
In 1346, the English completely flattened a much larger French force. This was the first major battle, and the "blind" chivalry of the French was no match for the longbows and tactics of the English, who lost only about 100 men and killed 3000.
English Longbow
Had a longer, but less accurate, range than the crossbow. It was used primarily in artillery barrages: arrows were shot in an arch so that they landed randomly in the ranks of the enemy, especially in lightly-armed cavalry and footsoldiers.
Battle of Agincourt
1415; The English again defeated the French using their longbows, despite their smaller numbers. The French knights dismounted and charged across a muddy field to the elevated position held by the English. They could hardly move in their armor, and 5,500 men were taken prisoner by the much smaller English army. The English were afraid that the prisoners might rally and fight back, and killed 4,500 of them.
Joan of Arc
A putative bipolar French peasant girl who told the dauphin about her visions of saints telling them to save Orleans from the English (it was under siege at the time). He allowed her to accompany a relief force to help defend the city, and she improved their morale greatly. The English were defeated at Orleans, and eventually driven out. Before their ultimate defeat though, she was burnt as a heretic by the English (Charles VII of France did nothing to try and save her).
Crown prince in line for the French throne (Charles VII was the one who Joan of Arc dealt with).
Battle of Orleans
The city of Orleans was under siege by the English when Joan of Arc had her religious revelation. The English and Burgundians already controlled the north, including Paris, and Orleans was the key to conquering the south. Because of Joan de Arc, an extra army was sent to help the city, and the English were defeated. After this battle, the English lost battles almost continuously until the 100 Years War was finally over.
Henry VII
The first Tudor king of England, who was on the Lancaster side of the War of the Roses and won it in 1485
Great Famine
1315-1317 was the first time this happened that century. It was caused by wars and crop failure, and urban workers were most affected by the widespread starvation. Around this time, there were many armies, crowded cities and overpopulated rural areas, all breeding grounds for disease...
Black Death
The worst plague in European history, lasting from about 1347 to 1352. In this time, over 1/3 of Europe's population died from a combination of three diseases: the bubonic plague, the septicemic plague, and the pneumonic plague. They were known collectively as this, and victims died a terrible death. It was brought in on fleas on rats on international trade ships. There were no logical explanations - some common ones were that planets were aligned in a poisonous way, Jews were poisoning the drinking water, or it was punishment for sin.
Wrote The Decamaron during the time of the plague, in which he said that people had many strategies to avoid the plague, and "Of the people who held these various opinions, not all of them died. Nor, however, did they all survive." He also described how people, out of fear, would not even help family members who were ill.
Dance of Death
A picture of naked, rotting corpses dancing before the living. This was depicted in the murals of the church of the holy innocents in Paris around 1485, and was a popular image in art and literature.
Ramifications of the plague
Jews were killed and blamed as scapegoats. Also, there were "aftershocks" almost every generation that killed people until 1771. Afterwards, surviving land owners had a great deal more money and land than before, and peasants were in greater demand. Tightening laws, however, brought social mobility to a standstill, which was very bad for peasants. Because there was less economic activity than before (because there were less people) larger taxes were imposed on those few left. There were violent uprisings in France, because between monarchs and land-owners, peasants were way over-taxed.
The Jacquerie(1358)
In order to ransom John II from the English, a new tax was implemented, just as rents and demands were raised by nobility. This set off an uprising by the peasants, who didn't want to lose the modest wealth they had accumulated in the last ten years. They brutally killed all the clergy and nobility they could find, and though disorganized, they were successful. They united to march south toward Paris. In the end, though, the peasants were defeated by a professional Parisian army at Meaux.
Hanseatic League
A powerful, united group of merchants who controlled a great deal of trade from Sweden to central Europe. They monopolized the northern grain trade, and had exclusive rights to export Scandinavian fish from Denmark to the rest of Europe.
breaking on the wheel
A brutal punishment where the criminal's back and limbs were broken by a wagon wheel, and they were then tied onto the wheel and left on a pole to die. This was one of the punishments to replace more humane ones, such as hanging. New punishments were implemented as crime rose along with urban poverty.
Popes of this place were French, and abused their power in such a way that they had great financial success, but lost political power. Because they were solely French, they had less influence outside of France. Germany and Italy openly defied this papacy. The Popes turned inwards, and managed to secure all the legal and financial success of the church for the Pope himself. They made money from sales of indulgences and church offices.
Clement V
A Frenchman elected by the other Bishops so that the Papacy would not fight - and lose to- the French king in battle again. He was elected in 1305, and was the first Pope in the Babylonian Captivity or Avignon Papacy.
Babylonian Captivity
The period when all popes were French and resided in Avignon, France, starting with Clement V. This angered Italians and led to the Great Schism.
Great Schism
When, in Italy, Pope Gregory XI died, Italians surrounded the election of the new pope and demanded that an Italian be elected. Urban VI, and Italian, was chosen. Urban tried to reform the curia, but did so undiplomatically and insulted many people. The cardinals all left Rome and said that because he was elected under unfair pressure, Urban VI was not, in fact, Pope. They then chose another pope, Clement VII, who was French. Both Popes had a legitimate claim, and this cause chaos that divided Western Christians. Communities and countries were divided, choosing sides politically.
an Italian poet who used his poetry to criticize the Avignon Papacy. He was the first person to use the phrase "Babylonian Captivity" to refer to it.
Explained by the church as the extra purity of saints that could be sold- for a donation to the church- in order to achieve penance ahead of time and reduce time in purgatory. These could be purchased for deceased family, or for someone still alive.
Some Cardinals tried to work together to end the Great Schism. They wanted to end the chaos, as everyone was exasperated with the popes. A problem-solving council of cardinals was opposed by both popes, because it would show that God's authority did not rest solely in the pope's hands.
Council of Pisa
In 1408, a council with bishops representing both popes met and elected a new pope, deposing both of the popes they represented. Neither former pope, however, would accept this new rival. Thus, the problem was not solved.
Council of Constance
A solution was found in a council presided over by the emperor-elect, Sigismund. Cardinals, theologians, etc, from all over Europe met to resolve the conflict. They also attempted to reform the church so that the Great Schism would not be repeated. Martin V, who was not affiliated with any of the former popes, was elected.
Martin V
Not aligned with the Pisan, Avignon or Roman popes, he was elected by the Council of Constance as the Pope to end the Great Schism.
Jan Hus
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500's. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy.
Imitation of Christ
A book by Thomas a Kempis, still widely read today. Thomas a Kempis was also a member of the Brethren of Common Life.
Brethren of Common Life
A religious group that was neither persecuted nor supported by the Catholic Church. They lived simple lives dedicated to God, and were mostly in Rhineland and the Low Countries.
John Wycliffe
Protected from ecclesiastical courts by secular English lords. He attacked the doctrine and politics of the church, and taught that sacriments were only as valuable as the priest administering them was worthy. Also, he said that if individuals (including popes and priests) sin, they forfeit the right to exercise authority. He said that the Eucharist was Christ only in spirit (not physically his body) and indulgences were meaningless. He said that salvation was predetermined. Because he attacked the Church's right to wealth, he was protected from being burnt at the stake.
Followers of John Wycliffe, they were suppressed in England under Henry V. By this time though, the less fundamental ideas of Wycliffe had spread to the University of Prague and led to reform there.
moriscos & converses
Respectively Muslim and Jewish converts to Christianity. These people in Spain converted to avoid persecution in Spain. They were feared, and often their Christian baptism and conversion did not protect them. Some of the Jewish converts became devout and well-known Christians, but most Muslims continued to practice their faith in secret.
Ockham's theory
Imperial power derived from the people. He believed that people should be free to elect leaders and choose their type of government. He believed in democracy, whether direct or republican. He also advocated separation of church and state, and a church structure based on councils, with no absolute ruler (ie, no pope). He also believed in finding large truths, or "universals" in individual experience.
Vernacular literature
LIterature not in Latin, used to make statements. Authors became critical of society and its values, and used their vernacular writing to express this.
Dante Alighieri
A well-educated Italian, he was first known for sensitive love poems. He was best known for The Divine Comedy, which he wrote in the final years of his life. It was his view of the Christian world, both summarizing and commenting on philosophy and theology of his time. It is divided into three parts: Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory.
In England, he was a courtier, who traveled and mastered philosophy and literature. He wrote from the perspective of various pilgrims to a tomb, and uses them as individuals representing many different walks of life. He thus subtly commented on cultural, religious and literary traditions.
Christine de Pisan
An unusual French woman, who earned her living by writing. She was an autocrat who started with love poems, then wrote an autobiographical poem. She was hugely successful, but had to fight stereotypes of women at the time. She was a feminist who used wit and reason to argue against antifeminist ideas, and asked women to develop independent self-worth and not rely on men, who cannot really empathize with women. She saluted Joan of Arc for her dignity as a French citizen and woman. She was an exception, but her writing was the epitomy of ideas of the century.
Laura Cereta
A radical feminist in her time (1469-1499) who had enough education to write about her ideas. She was Italian, and like Christine de Pisan, she furthered her education after her husband died and began publishing writing. Neither women nor men supported her, so she stopped writing after her father died. She did, however, help pave the way for other educated women.

more from user

Immune System Terms Foundations 3

46 items en en

Biologics + Gout

11 items en en

Derm terms for every day things

4 items en en

Renal Stuff

12 items en en

CV drugs

8 items en en

CV medications

3 items en en

Last-minute microbe review

26 items en en


8 items en en

Respiratory Viruses

19 items en en


9 items en en

Gram Negative Bacteria

9 items en en

Enteric Viruses

8 items en en


AP European History- Ch. 10

49 items en en

AP European History Chapter 11

79 items en en

AP Euro Unit 1 Exam: the High Middle Ages

62 items en en

AP Euro Chapter 9

43 items en en


Biology test 3

72 items en en

chapter 6 culture and ethnicity

28 items en en

SSS.7.C.2.1/SSS.7.C.2.2 VOCAB Gerges

19 items en en

Skills Test 1

16 items en en