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What are two applications of chemical phenomena that were utilized prior to 1000 B.C.
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The processing of natural ores to produce metal for ornaments and weapons and the use of embalming fluids.
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What are two applications of chemical phenomena that were utilized prior to 1000 B.C.
The processing of natural ores to produce metal for ornaments and weapons and the use of embalming fluids.
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed
Who created the law of conservation of mass?
Antoine Lavoiser
Law of definite proportion
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers
Avagadro's Hypothesis
- at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles - Volume of gas is determined by the number not the size of the molecules
Cathode-ray tubes
partially evacuated tubes where J.J. Thomson studied electrical discharges
Who discovered the ray from the cathode-ray tubes was a stream of negatively charged particles that we now call electrons?
J.J. Thomson
phenomenon to a spontaneous emission of radiation by uranium
Gay Lussac (1809-1811)
- measured (under same conditions of temperature and pressure) the volumes of gases that reacted with each other
2 non-metals make what kind of bond?
Polar bonds consist of what kind of sharing?
Non-polar bonds consist of what kind of sharing?
2 of the same element bonded together created what kind of bond?
2 different elements bonded together create what kind of bond?
What does unequal sharing do?
gives partial positive/negative charge
How do you determine the size of elements?
As you go down the periodic table elements get larger
Who determined there is positive particles that are balanced out with the negative charge carried by electrons?
J.J. Thomson
Who: - performed experiments involving charged oil drops - magnitude of the charge on a single electron
Robert Millikan (1909)
Who: - Discovered radioactivity by the use of uranium
Henri Bacquered
What are the three parts of radioactive emission?
Gamma ray, Beta particles, Alpha particles
Consists of high energy light
Gamma ray
Consists of high speed electrons
Beta Particles
Particle with a 2+ charge
Alpha Particles
Who: - explained nuclear atom - stated an atom has a dense center of positive charge called a nucleus -stated electrons travel around the nucleus at large distances
Ernest Rutherford
What experiment was it that Rutherford noticed the rays of light went through the foil proving a dense nucleus?
Gold Foil Experiment
outside the nucleus and negatively charged
Inside the nucleus and positively charged
Inside the nucleus, no charge, and consisting of the same mass as a proton
What electron model do we use today to see approximately where electrons are?
Electron Cloud Model
What has the same number of protons but different number of neutrons?
- Electrons being transferred - Attraction between opposite charged ions
Ionic Bond
Positive; lost electrons
Negative; gained electrons
What group of elements are the most stable on the periodic table?
Nobel gases

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